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JKFN Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition



Online ISSN 2288-5978

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  • Aster glehni Franchet et Sckmidt is mainly grown in Ulleungdo Island, Republic of Korea. It has been known as a medicinal herb that relieves frequent coughing, high fever, and severe pain. Although several recent studies have reported that Aster glehni might have neuroprotective and memory-enhancing effects, research on the effects of improving cognitive function is insufficient. This study was therefore undertaken to investigate whether ethanolic extracts from leaves and stems of Aster glehni (EAG) have an effect on improving cognitive functions, through in vitro and in vivo assays. In addition, synergistic effects on cognitive improvement were evaluated by applying a combination of EAG with the vitamin B complex (VBC). The in vivo studies determined that EAG exerts cognitive improvement effects by reducing escape latency and increasing the time spent in the platform quadrant in the Morris water maze test. EAG treatment also inhibited acetylcholinesterase activity and increased the level of acetylcholine in mouse brain tissues. Moreover, we observed a protective effect against β-amyloid-induced neurotoxicity in human neuroblastoma cells. These effects were further enhanced when combined with VBC. Therefore, these findings indicate that EAG treatment in combination with VBC has the potential to improve cognitive function more effectively than a single treatment.Key words : Aster glehni, vitamin B complex, synergistic effect, cognitive improvement, acetylcholinesterase

  • Article l 2022-06-30

    Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Leaf-Fruit Extract Mixture of Lycium barbarum

    Ji Eun Kim , Sung Jin Lee , Eun Young Bae , and Sun Yung Ly

    This study investigates the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and whitening effects of Lycium barbarum extracts. Mixtures of 50% ethanol fractions of Lycium barbarum fruit and chlorophyll-removed leaf were prepared in ratios of 1:1, 2:1, 3:1, and 5:1 (M1, M2, M3, and M5), respectively. The total polyphenol content of the sample, DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging ability, and FRAP values were measured as antioxidant activity. The inhibitory effect of NO, TNF-α, and IL-6 production in Raw 264.7 cells was measured as anti-inflammatory activity. In addition, to examine the functionality as a cosmetic raw material, we measured the efficacy of inhibiting tyrosinase and the elastase activity of the sample. We observed that the polyphenol content was significantly higher in the M3 (154.6 mg GAE/g) and M5 (142.4 mg GAE/g) samples, and their FRAP value and DPPH and ABTS radicals scavenging activities were significantly higher compared to M1 or M2 samples. The inhibitory effect of tyrosinase activity was significantly higher in M2 and M5 (78% and 77% of kojic acid, respectively). The mixture showed no cytotoxicity in Raw 264.7 cells up to a concentration of 1,000 μg/mL. Samples M3 and M5 significantly inhibited NO, TNF-α, and IL-6 production in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated Raw 264.7 cells. In conclusion, we determined that the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and whitening effects were greater in mixtures containing a higher ratio of the chlorophyll-removed Lycium leaves fraction.Key words : Lycium barbarum leaf, antioxidant, anti-inflammation

  • This study investigated the protective effect of the Abies holophylla leaf extract on the alcohol metabolism enzyme activity and against H2O2 and ethanol-induced oxidative stress in HepG2 cells. The effect of Abies holophylla leaf extract on alcohol metabolism was determined by measuring the generation of reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) by alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and acetaldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH). ADH and ALDH activities of Abies holophylla leaf extract were increased in a dose-dependent manner (PKey words : Abies holophylla leaf, alcohol dehydrogenase, HepG2, Bcl-2 family, apoptosis

  • Article l 2022-06-30

    Chemical Sensory Properties of Radishes in Varying Storage Periods and Temperatures Using Electronic Sensors and Multivariate Analyses

    Seong Min Jo , Seong Jun Hong, Hyangyeon Jeong, Sojeong Yoon, and Eui-Cheol Shin

    This study sought to investigate the changes in the chemical sensory properties of radishes upon storage for various periods in cool temperature (4°C) and room temperature (20°C), respectively. An electronic tongue analysis showed that the intensities of umami and sweetness of the radishes stored at the cool temperature were relatively higher than those at room temperature. There were, however, no significant differences in the sourness, saltiness, and bitterness. The electronic nose analysis identified a total of 63 and 54 volatile compounds under cool and room temperature conditions, respectively. Methanethiol, one of the sulfur-containing compounds, was predominant and its increase was dependent on the storage period. The ethanol content in the radishes stored at room temperature increased rapidly from the second week onwards. Multivariate analysis successfully distinguished various clusters based on different storage conditions. This data can be used to constitute a basic database of radish characteristics for the food industry.Key words : electronic nose, electronic tongue, multivariate analysis, radish, sensory properties

  • This study investigated the possibility of supplementing watermelon as a natural sweetening ingredient in Bibimnaengmyeon sauce. To determine the optimal ratio of watermelon powder in the formulation, Bibimnaengmyeon sauces were prepared with 25, 50, 75, and 100% watermelon powder instead of sugar and analyzed with the control for consumer acceptance test. This study also investigated the awareness of Bibimnaengmyeon to provide additional marketing implications. Our results indicate that for all 6 factors examined (overall liking, appearance, color, flavor/ smell, taste, and texture) on the 9-point hedonic scale in evaluation, the WP50 sample supplemented with 50% watermelon powder instead of sugar showed the best results. In addition, the WP50 sample received the highest purchase intention and recommendation intention (P<0.001). Contrarily, the WP100 formulation showed the lowest results for all factors evaluated (P<0.01). Compared to the control group, all preference characteristics, except texture, showed high liking in the 25∼75% watermelon powder supplementation groups. These findings indicate that consumers prefer sauces with less than 75% sugar-replacing watermelon powder as compared to the control sauces. The WP50 sample supplemented with 50% watermelon powder showed the best acceptance test score (P<0.01). In conclusion, the overall results indicate that replacing sugar with 50% watermelon powder in the preparation of Bibimnaemyeon sauce is optimal, with a reasonably high overall acceptability. We believe that the results of this study will contribute positively to the utilization of surplus watermelon rendering their application as a resource for use as a natural sweetener.Key words : watermelon, watermelon powder, sugar alternative, Bibimnaengmyeon sauce

  • This study was investigated to determine the effect of different salting methods (A: brine and dry salting, B: medium and low-temperature automatic salting) on the physicochemical characteristics of brined baechu cabbages. The salinity and soluble solid contents were found to be higher in A than in B. During the period of storage, the texture of A decreased significantly, whereas the product obtained from B maintained the initial texture until the 4th day, after which there was a significant decrease. Initial pH was high, with a difference observed in B only on the 2nd day, following which a significant decrease was obtained in both groups. The titratable acidity was significantly high in A on the 2nd and 4th days. During the period of storage, the values were increased on the 4th day in both groups and were comparable to changes in the pH. Both groups were high in lightness values, which decreased during the period of storage. The redness of B was higher than that of A and increased during the period of storage. The yellowness of A was higher than that of B up till the 2nd day, after which the values were higher in B. The total number of aerobic bacteria was higher in B than in A and increased significantly during the period of storage in both groups. Coliform bacteria, yeast, and fungi were significantly lower in B than in A. In conclusion, optimal supplementation will help to resolve problems arising from the quality characteristics of brined baechu cabbage and will facilitate increasing the market growth of brined baechu cabbage.Key words : salting method, brined baechu cabbage, texture, quality, characteristic

  • This study analyzes the antioxidant activity of different fragments obtained from freeze-dried broccoli, and the storage properties of freeze-dried broccoli flower bud powder (BF; 0%, 0.3%, 0.6%, and 0.9%) on emulsion-type pork sausage. The antioxidant activity of broccoli flower bud (BF) and stem (BS) was analyzed by assessing the dry yield, pH, total polyphenol contents (TPC), total flavonoid contents (TFC), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazy (DPPH), and ferric reducing antioxidant power assay (FRAP). The dry yield was significantly higher in BF than in BS (PKey words : freeze-dried, broccoli, emulsion-type sausage, antioxidant activity, storage properties

  • Article l 2022-06-30

    Effect of Hot Air or Combined Drying Treatment on Physicochemical Properties and Antioxidant Activity of Jeju Beets

    A-Ra Ko , Jung-Hyun Nam , Hee-Jung Jin , Ji-Hyun Im , Han-Sang Kim, and Ji-Yeon Chun

    Beet (Beta vulgaris L.) is a healthy food that has recently attracted the consumer’s attention. However, beet has low storage stability due to the high moisture content. Therefore, a drying process is necessary to improve the beet quality. In this study, Jeju beet was dried by applying two processes: hot air drying (4.5 hours at 70°C, 6 hours at 60°C, 13 hours at 50°C) and combined drying (hot air and infrared radiation, 1 hour at 100°C). The effect of both processes was investigated on the physicochemical properties and antioxidant activity was investigated. The dried beets were compared for their appearance, drying yield, moisture content, water activity, pH value, color, rehydration ratio, betalain pigment content, total polyphenol content, DPPH radical scavenging activity, ABTS+ radical scavenging activity, and FRAP assay. The beet subjected to combined drying was determined to have high storage properties due to its low moisture content and pH value. In addition, the combined dried beet showed the highest rehydration ratio and antioxidant activity. Taken together, our results indicate that an appropriate combination of hot air and infrared radiation is suitable to produce high-quality dried beet.Key words : hot air drying, combined drying, infrared radiation, beet, antioxidant activity

  • Article l 2022-06-30

    Different Blanching and Thawing Methods Affect the Qualities of Potatoes and Carrots: A Study Done at Jeju Island

    Ji-Hyun Im , Jung-Hyun Nam , A-Ra Ko , Hee-Jung Jin , Duri Kim , Chang-Sook Kim , and Ji-Yeon Chun

    This study investigates the effects of various blanching methods (hot water blanching (HB) or steam blanching (SB)) and thawing methods (room temperature thawing (RT), running water thawing (WT), and microwave thawing (MT)) on the quality attributes of frozen potatoes and carrots. Blanched potatoes and carrots were frozen using individual quick freezing (−35°C), followed by applying various thawing methods. We observed increased thawing speed in the order of RT, WT, and MT. The MT method was about 24 to 70 times shorter than the other methods. The thawing losses were influenced by the blanching methods which affect the drip loss and moisture contents of potatoes and carrots. The blanching process reduced the browning of potatoes but did not affect color of the carrots. No change was obtained in the pH value when considering different blanching or thawing methods. The hardness of potatoes and carrots tended to be lowered by blanching treatment. SB treated potatoes and carrots had high DPPH radical scavenging ability and vitamin C content. Especially, the WT treated potatoes and carrots had the highest total polyphenol content. Our results confirmed that SB is an excellent pre-treatment for potatoes and carrots from the nutritional aspect, and blanching pre-treatment before the freezing process could suppress the quality changes that occur during the thawing processes. Furthermore, we propose that RT after SB treatment for potatoes and carrots is probably the most suitable method to maintain their nutritional quality.Key words : potato, carrot, pre-treatment, freezing, thawing

  • This study investigates the physicochemical properties and bioactive compounds of red pigmented rice (colored rice) by examining soaking and germination rates. As evaluated from the germination rate and sprout length of the germinating red rice, the optimal soaking condition was determined to be approximately 24 hours of soaking before germination. Increased germination time resulted in an increase in the L* and b* values and decreased a* value. Crude protein, crude fat, and crude ash contents in red rice were increased during germination, whereas the starch content was decreased. The α-amylase activity of red rice was higher than ordinary brown rice and showed rapid increase after 72 hours of germination, but β-amylase activity increased only slightly. The amounts of bioactive compounds, including γ-aminobutyric acid, total phenolics, and flavonoids in red rice, were increased during germination and were higher than values obtained in germinating ordinary brown rice.Key words : red rice, soaking, germination, physicochemical properties, bioactive compounds

  • This study investigated methods to increase the availability and value of Fructus Ligustri Lucidi to be used as a healthy functional food material. The quality characteristics and antioxidant activity of Yanggaeng with different percentages (0%, 2%, 4%, 6%, 8% w/v) of Fructus Ligustri Lucidi extract were analyzed. The pH and sweetness of Yanggaeng decreased with the addition of Fructus Ligustri Lucidi extract (PKey words : Fructus Ligustri Lucidi extract, antioxidant activity, Yanggaeng, quality characteristics

  • The texture of cooked rice was measured under various measurement conditions using extrusion test which better predict sensory texture characteristic values. Commercial cooked rice was used for these tests. As the cross-head speed increased from 1.67 mm/s to 10 mm/s, the maximum force, gradient, and area values of all the samples increased, but there were no changes in significant differences between the samples. When the probe travel distance was increased from 45 mm to 55 mm, the maximum force and gradient values did not show a significant increase in all samples, but the area value increased significantly as the travel distance increased. The Pearson correlation test between the maximum force and the gradient value or the maximum force and the area value under each measurement condition, showed a high correlation of 0.90 or more under all conditions.Key words : cooked rice, texture, extrusion test, measurement conditions

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June, 2022
Vol.51 No.6

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