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JKFN Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition

Online ISSN 2288-5978
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  • Article l 2023-05-31

    Effect of Artemisia littoricola Extracts on Melanogenesis in Murine Melanoma Cells

    Jiho Yang , Hyunjung Lee , Xianrong Zhou , Seongeun Jeon , Mi-na Choi , Jung Hwan Oh , Fatih Karadeniz , Youngwan Seo, and Chang-Suk Kong

    Skin color is determined by melanin distributed in the skin, hair, eye, heart, and brain. Melanin protects the skin against ultraviolet and scavenges the cellular reactive oxygen species. However, the abnormal accumulation of melanin induces hyperpigmentation diseases such as melisma, freckles, etc. Recent studies have focused on discovering plant-origin whitening agents against hyperpigmentation with fewer side effects and higher biocompatibility. Salt marsh plants have unique functional secondary metabolites that are not present in land plants due to their special habitat conditions comprising mixed inorganic salts and organic substances. Artemisia littoricola is a halophyte classified as belonging to the division Magnoliophyta, class Magnoliopsida, order Asterales, family Asteraceae, and genus Artemisia. It is expected that by cultivating and collecting this plant, large amounts of raw material can be procured for the cosmetic industry. This study examines the crude extract and solvent-fractionated extracts of A. littoricola (H2O, n-butanol, 85% aq. MeOH, and n-hexane) and evaluates the inhibition of melanogenesis in B16F10 murine melanoma cells. The crude extract and solvent fractions of A. littoricola inhibited the oxidation of tyrosine and L-DOPA in a concentration-dependent manner, indicating an inhibitory effect on melanin production. All extracts also inhibited the expression of proteins responsible for melanin synthesis, namely TRP-1 and TRP-2. Results of the current study reveal the anti-melanogenic properties of A. littoricola and indicate the potential application as a natural source of cosmeceutical agents with skin-whitening effects.Key words : Artemisia littoricola, B16F10, melanogenesis, salt marsh plant, whitening

  • Article l 2023-05-31

    Effects of Gloiopeltis furcata Extract on Antioxidant Activity and Osteoblast Differentiation

    Jeong Hyeon Kang , Kyung Im Jung , Mi Hwa Park , Geun Hye Oh , and Mihyang Kim

    Osteoporosis is a disease characterized by decreased bone strength, decreased bone mass, and bone deterioration. The current study investigates the effects of Gloiopeltis furcata ethanol extract (GFE) on antioxidant activity and osteoblast differentiation in MC3T3-E1 osteoblastic cells. Antioxidant activities of GFE were examined by evaluating 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, and total polyphenol content. Results showed that GFE contains 3.04 mg gallic acid equivalents/mL. GFE exhibited significantly strong scavenging activity in the DPPH assay, and 54.26% SOD activity was exhibited at 1,000 mg/mL concentration. Furthermore, GFE significantly increased the viability and proliferation of the MC3T3-E1 osteoblastic cells. Exposure to GFE promoted alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and mineralized nodules in MC3T3-E1 cells. Moreover, a dose-dependent increase in the expression of proteins associated with osteoblast growth and differentiation, such as Runx2, ALP, and osterix, was observed in the GFE-treated cells. Taken together, these results indicate that GFE encompasses both antioxidant potential and osteoblast differentiation properties. Thus, we conclude that GFE can potentially be applied as an alternate therapy for the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis.Key words : Gloiopeltis furcata, antioxidant, osteoporosis, osteoblast differentiation

  • Article l 2023-05-31

    Anti-Osteoarthritis Effect of Enriched Boswellia serrata Gum Resin Extract in SW1353 Chondrocytes

    Jae In Jung , Hyun Sook Lee , Ryong Kim , and Eun Ji Kim

    Boswellia serrata (BS) is widely employed for the treatment of several diseases such as arthritis, rhinitis, asthma, and several cancers. The present study investigates the anti-osteoarthritis activity and the underlying mechanism of the ethanol extract of BS gum resin (FJH-UBS) enriched with keto-β-boswellic acid and 3-O-acetyl-11-keto-β-boswellic acid compared to the conventional BS extract by the additional process of oil removal with hexane. An in vitro osteoarthritis-like model was established using interleukin (IL)-1β-stimulated human SW1353 chondrocytes. The SW1353 cells were stimulated with IL-1β (10 ng/mL) and treated with FJH-UBS (0∼20 μg/mL) for 24 h. FJH-UBS reversed the IL-1β-induced increase in the protein and mRNA expressions of nitric oxide/inducible nitric oxide synthase, prostaglandin E2/cyclooxygenase, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor-α, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1, MMP-3, and MMP-13, and reversed the IL-1β-induced downregulation of aggrecan and type II collagen. In addition, FJH-UBS reversed the IL-1β-induced increases in p65 nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), inhibitor-κ-Bα, and the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) family (extracellular signaling-regulated kinase, p38, c-jun-N-terminal-kinase) phosphorylation, suggesting an anti-inflammatory activity mediated by blocking these key signaling transduction pathways. These results indicate that FJH-UBS is a potential therapeutic agent for osteoarthritis, exerting its effect via inhibition of the IL-1β-induced inflammation and inhibiting extracellular matrix degradation by suppressing the NF-κB and MAPK pathways.Key words : Boswellia serrata, osteoarthritis, chondrocyte, IL-1β, inflammation

  • Article l 2023-05-31

    Assessment of Bioactive Compounds and Anti-Atopic Effect of Ecklonia cava and Ecklonia stolonifera by Bioconversion

    June seok Lim , Geun hee Cho , Xionggao Han , Xiao Men , Se-jeong Lee , Geon Oh , Sun-Il Choi , Wha Young Lee , and Ok-Hwan Lee

    Atopic dermatitis is a chronic dermatitis caused by the immune imbalance of Th1 and Th2. This study evaluates and compares alleviation of the hyperimmune response due to immune imbalance of Th1 and Th2 after exposure to Ecklonia cava (EC), Ecklonia stolonifera (ES), fermented Ecklonia cava (FEC), and fermented Ecklonia stolonifera (FES). The contents of dieckol in EC, FEC, ES and FES were determined to be 8.53±0.33 mg/g, 7.51±0.21 mg/g, 1.42±0.32 mg/g, and 0.84±0.10 mg/g, respectively. The β-glucan content in EC, FEC, ES, and FES was 24.31±0.71 mg/g, 38.22±0.92 mg/g, 34.70±0.83 mg/g, and 58.35±0.46 mg/g, respectively. We also investigated the anti-atopic effect of EC, FEC, ES, and FES on TNF-α/IFN-γ-induced HaCaT cells by evaluating the production of MDC, TARC, and IL-6. Compared to EC and ES, exposure of TNF-α/IFN-γ-induced HaCaT cells to FEC and FES significantly reduced the production of IL-6, MDC, and TARC. The pre-treatment of HaCaT cells with FEC, and FES was observed to inhibit the TNF-α/IFN-γ-induced nuclear transcription factor, NF-κB, Jak1, and STAT1. These results indicate the potential of FEC and FES to be used as functional ingredients for improving atopic dermatitis.Key words : Ecklonia cava, Ecklonia stolonifera, atopic dermatitis, β-glucan, bioconversion

  • Article l 2023-05-31

    Anti-Obesity Effects of Black Barley Ferment Extract in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes and Obese Mice Induced by High Fat Diet

    Hye Ran Choi , Su Jung Lee, Jong Hyuk Park, Jaeju Kim, and Tae Ho Ryu

    This study was undertaken to verify the anti-obesity effects of black barley ferment extract (BBFE) in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and obese mice. The anti-obesity effects of black barley extract (BBE) and BBFE were investigated by measuring Oil Red O staining in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. The staining results revealed that compared to BBE, exposure to BBFE significantly reduced lipid accumulation in cells. Compared to the untreated high-fat (HF) diet group, oral administration of BBFE (100, 300, and 500 mg/kg, body weight/daily for 8 weeks) in HF diet-induced obese mice resulted in reduced body weight, adipose tissue weight, food efficiency ratio, and serum levels of triglyceride, leptin, and insulin. Quantitative real-time PCR results determined that the elevated mRNA expression levels of adipogenesis-related genes of obese mice were significantly suppressed by BBFE. These results indicate the potential efficacy of BBFE in the prevention of obesity-related diseases.Key words : anti-obesity, black barley ferment extract, C57BL/6N mice, high-fat diet, 3T3-L1

  • This study aims to verify the accuracy of the UPLC-MS method for analyzing Δ-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD) levels. The contents were investigated in hemp seeds, hemp seed oil, and processed foods containing hemp seeds in South Korea. Our results confirmed that the method was appropriate with high selectivity, reproducibility, linearity, and recovery for both THC (94.1∼108.3%) and CBD (84.9∼109.0%). It was determined that 13 out of the 16 tested products were within the suitable range of THC and CBD levels. However, three out of nine hemp seed oil products exceeded the standards for these compounds, indicating the need for continuous monitoring. The results of our study verify and conclude the reliability of LC-MS/MS as a method for determining THC and CBD concentrations in hemp seeds and hemp seed oil.Key words : THC, CBD, UPLC-MS, hemp seed oil, method validation

  • Article l 2023-05-31

    Quality and Antioxidant Characteristics of Water Spinach (Ipomoea aquatica Forsk.) Cultivated in Korea with Various Cooking Methods

    Seung-Hyeon Cha , So Mi Park, Sang-Beom Park, Se-Lim Bak, Shangle Jiang, and Keum-Il Jang

    This study compared the quality and antioxidant characteristics of water spinach (WS, Ipomoea aquatica Forsk.) cultivated in Korea using various cooking methods. First, the leaves and stems of WS were separated and cooked by blanching, boiling, steaming, or microwaving. The proximate composition, pH, total acidity, color, total polyphenol and flavonoid contents, and DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activities were analyzed. The water content of WS was higher in the stems than in the leaves, while the crude protein, crude ash, crude fat, and carbohydrate contents were higher in the leaves. With all cooking methods, the pH increased, and the total acidity decreased; browning occurred during the cooking process. All antioxidant components and activities were higher in the WS leaves than in the stems. The total polyphenol and flavonoid contents were high in the leaves and stems of microwave-cooked WS; compared to the control, the antioxidant components were higher in the leaves than in the stems. The DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activities were highest in the leaves and stems of microwave-cooked WS. The DPPH radical scavenging activity of the stems was high with boiling, while the ABTS radical scavenging activity was high with steaming. The cooking method selected is important because the nutrient content and antioxidant activities can differ according to the cooking method. This study provides basic information that could aid the use of WS as food.Key words : water spinach, cooking method, quality characteristic, antioxidant activity, Korea

  • Article l 2023-05-31

    Physicochemical Properties and Bioactive Compounds of Coffee Extracts Prepared by Partial Substitution with Wheat and Barley Grass

    Bo-Kyung Shin , Na-Gyeong Koo, Yun-Ji Lee, Min-Su Lee, Gyu-Chang Mun, Hyeong-Jin Kim, and Young-Tack Lee

    In this study, mixtures of coffee and cereal grass were prepared by substituting ordinary roasted coffee with cereal grass (wheat and barley grass) at concentrations between 5∼15%. The physicochemical properties and bioactive compounds of the extracts were subsequently evaluated. We observed that increasing concentrations of cereal grass (5∼15%) resulted in increased levels of crude protein content and decreased crude fat and ash contents of the mixture samples. Increase in the lightness of coffee extract was proportional to the increase in cereal grass, whereas the redness, yellowness, and browning index were decreased. With an increase in the ratio of cereal grass, the total phenolic content decreased slightly, while the flavonoid content tended to increase. The chlorophyll, β-carotene, and vitamin C contents increased in the coffee extract containing higher concentrations of cereal grass. No significant difference was obtained in the DPPH radical scavenging activity with increased cereal grass concentrations, but the SOD-like activity was observed to increase. Taken together, our results indicate that partial supplementation of coffee with wheat or barley grass has the potential to increase bioactive compounds and enhance the function of caffeinated coffee drinks.Key words : wheat grass, barley grass, coffee substitute, bioactive compounds

  • The stability of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is important for industrial usage as a starter culture for the rice wine fermentation process. This study evaluates the effects of diverse protective agents and storage conditions after freeze-drying of the high ethanol-producing S. cerevisiae JBCC-95 strain isolated from traditional rice wine. Four single cryoprotective freeze-drying agents (viz., 10% each of skim milk, lactose, trehalose, and sorbitol) were evaluated, and 10% lactose was determined to be an excellent single protectant. Moreover, the stability of S. cerevisiae JBCC-95 after freeze-drying with 5% skim milk with lactose was greatly enhanced up to 70%, which is 2.5 times higher than the single treatment of lactose. During long-term storage of 30 days at low temperatures, S. cerevisiae JBCC-95 showed less than 13% survival with single protectants, whereas 26% survival was obtained with combined protectants. Physicochemical analysis revealed that freezing of S. cerevisiae JBCC-95 with the selected protectant of 5% skim milk and lactose had no significant effect on the rice wine fermentation (PKey words : protectant effect, freeze-drying, rice wine, Saccharomyces cerevisiae

  • Soymilk is a healthy alternative to milk for those who prefer plant-based diets. However, the relationship between milk and soymilk intake and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk is still not fully understood. Subjects aged 40~64 years were selected from the 2012∼2016 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) data and divided into three groups: Controls who did not drink both milk and soymilk at all (n=2,529); Milk intakers (n=1,072) or soymilk intakers (n=512), who drank only milk or soymilk thee times a week. The CVD risk was determined by calculating the Framingham Risk Score. For all subjects, the 10-year CVD risk was significantly lower in milk intakers (5.9%) than in controls (7.1%) and soymilk intakers (8.0%). Statistics stratified by gender and age revealed that milk intakes, especially among women aged 50∼64, had significantly low CVD risk (PKey words : milk, soymilk, cardiovascular disease, adult

  • Article l 2023-05-31

    Quality Characteristics of Korean Commercial String Cheeses

    Seul-Gi Hong , Inyong Kim , Sunyoon Jeong , Jung-Heun Ha , and Yoonhwa Jeong

    This study investigated the nutritional, physicochemical, microbiological, and consumer acceptance for 7 commercially available string cheeses in Korea. Nutritional values were determined by measuring the moisture contents (44.00∼52.33%), crude protein (20.15∼28.47%), crude fat (6.93∼22.29%), and crude ash (2.20∼3.22%). Moisture contents were relatively lower when the cheese contained either higher protein (C5) or fat (C5 and C6) contents. The calcium content in commercially available string cheese was determined to be in the range of 383.89∼1,136.42 mg/100 g, which differed greatly depending on the type of cheese. Colorimetric and textural properties were examined to assess the physicochemical properties of the 7 commercially available string cheeses. Overall, the color of cheeses expressed higher L values, with the highest L value (89.97) obtained in C1. In the texture assessment, C2 exhibited relatively greater hardness, cohesiveness, springiness, chewiness, gumminess, and resilience compared to other cheese types. Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella spp., and Listeria monocytogenes were not detected in any of the tested cheeses. In consumer acceptance, C5 was highly preferred with the highest scores obtained for savory, sourness, and overall acceptance, whereas C2 marked the lowest acceptance among all test items.Key words : commercial cheese, string cheese, quality characteristics

  • This study was undertaken to investigate whether meringue cookies could be manufactured by substituting egg whites. Meringue cookies were prepared using either egg whites (control; Eggwhite) or substituting with varying concentrations of chickpea aqueous solution (CAS). The physical properties and sensory evaluation of meringue cookies were assessed. The correlations between the moisture content, color, and physical properties and meringue cookies were analyzed by Principal Component Analysis (PCA) using python. PCA revealed that Eggwhite and CAS90 (meringue cookies made by using CAS 90% amount of egg white amount) belonged to quadrant 2; hence, the overall acceptance distribution between Eggwhite and CAS90 was displayed as a python distribution plot. The height of the meringue cookie was the highest in CAS100 (meringue cookies prepared by using CAS 100% amount of egg white amount), with decreasing height observed as the CAS content decreased. PCA results classified the meringue cookies into 5 groups. Eggwhite and CAS90 were predicted to have similar physical properties. Sensory evaluation of the meringue cookies revealed the highest value of overall acceptance for CAS90. We conclude that CAS is a workable substitute for meringue cookies. Our results indicate that compared to Eggwhite, CAS90 was better accepted by consumers who participated in this experiment.Key words : meringue cookies, egg white, chickpea aqueous solution, substitute, python

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May 2023
Vol.52 No.5

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Print ISSN 1226-3311 Online ISSN 2288-5978