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JKFN Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition



Online ISSN 2288-5978

Current Issue

  • Many studies have shown that grapes have antioxidant, nerve protection, liver protection, and anti-cancer effects, but their effectiveness on leaves is not known. The study was conducted to identify the effectiveness of Campbell early leaves (CEL) in heart and kidney dysfunction. Cardiomyopathy was induced by a treatment with isoprenaline (ISO) in rats to confirm the improved effect of cardiac-kidney dysfunction (cardio-renal syndrome). ISO (10 mg/kg/d) was administered intraperitoneally for two weeks and was divided into five groups: CONT, control; ISO, isoprenaline 10 mg/kg/d; PRO, ISO+propranolol 10 mg/kg; CEL100, ISO+CEL 100 mg/kg/d; CEL200, ISO+CEL 200 mg/kg/d. The experiment was conducted for four weeks. As a result, the CEL groups showed an improvement in the value of the left ventricle mass index after exposure to ISO compared to the control group. Furthermore, the echocardiogram measurements showed that the CEL groups could recover the decrease in ejection fraction, fractional shortening, and stroke volume. To identify the heart-kidney functionality, albumin, osmotic, and blood nitrogen was measured in each group, which showed a significant increase in the ISO group, decreasing in the CEL group. The fibrosis of the kidneys also recovered in the CEL group. In conclusion, in cardiomyopathy caused by ISO-induced rats, CEL improves the heart and kidney function. Therefore, grape leaves and fruit are considered useful for improving the heart-kidney functional disorders in grape leaves.Key words : Campbell early leaves, cardiomyopathy, cardiorenal syndrome, heart-kidney dysfunction, functional food

  • Article l 2021-03-31

    Synergistic Effect of Improving Skin Hydration by Administration of Milk Ceramide and Low Molecular Fish Collagen Complex

    Hye-Jeong See , Yoon Seok Kim, Seok Jun Park, Jin Oh Yang, Sinai Lee, and Hye-Jin Kim

    The milk-derived milk ceramide (MC) and low molecular fish collagen (LFC) are materials that are effective in skin hydration and elasticity, and are widely used as skin functional ingredients. This study undertook a clinical trial to evaluate the synergistic effects of MC and LFC complex on skin hydration and elasticity. Participants (n=21) were randomly assigned to receive either MC, LFC, or a complex of MC and LFC, twice a day for 4 weeks. Skin hydration, transepidermal water loss (TEWL), elasticity and dermis density were assessed before and after the 4 weeks administration. Compared to the MC and LFC groups, skin hydration and TEWL were significantly improved (P<0.05) in the MC+LFC group after 4 weeks. Both skin elasticity and dermis density also showed improvement in the MC+LFC group after 4 weeks, but was not significantly different. Taken together, these results indicate that the mixture of MC and LFC exerts a synergistic effect in improving human skin hydration, as compared to MC and LFC administration individually.Key words : milk ceramide, low molecular fish collagen, skin hydration, skin elasticity, synergistic effect

  • Article l 2021-03-31

    Ginsenoside Conversion and Anti-Inflammatory Effect on RAW 264.7 Cells of Ginseng Extract Vinegar

    Kyung Eun Moon , Hyeon Hwa Oh, Do Youn Jeong, and Young-Soo Kim

    Ginseng liqueur (GL) was prepared by adding 9% alcohol to 2% ginseng extract, and was fermented using the selected Acetobacter pasteurianus JBA190503 strain. To another GL, 10% of the seed culture was added and incubated in a shaking incubator at 30°C and 120 rpm for 25 days. The ginsenoside contents of Rg3 and Rg5 in the ginseng extract vinegar (GV) were 55.58 μg/mL and 28.52 μg/mL, respectively, which were more than four times that of GL. The changes in the ginsenoside contents and physicochemical properties (soluble sugar content, pH, total acidity, and organic acid) of the ginseng extract were evaluated during the acetic acid fermentation period. On the 10th day of fermentation, the total acidity increased to 4.10% and reached 6.41% on the 25th day. Acetic acid was identified as a major organic acid and its content was increased to 6,253.01 mg% on the 25th day from 246.05 mg% on the starting day. The anti-inflammatory effect on lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 1 μg/mL)-induced inflammatory reactions in RAW 264.7 cells demonstrated that treatment with GV decreased NO, PGE2, TNF-α and IL-1β production in RAW 264.7 cells by 77.37%, 21.94%, 69.17%, and 91.76%, respectively, and GV inhibited the activation of iNOS and COX-2 gene expression by 61.23% and 20.59%, respectively, at a 1:50 dilution. Based on these findings, the A. pasteurianus JBA190503 strain could be a suitable strain for the industrial fermentation of ginseng in ginseng vinegar production with an enhanced anti-inflammatory effect by increasing the production of low molecular ginsenosides and acetic acid.Key words : ginseng liqueur, ginseng extract vinegar, ginsenoside, anti-inflammatory

  • This study was undertaken to confirm the antioxidant effects (electron donating ability (EDA) and ABTS radical scavenging ability) of the water (HSW) and ethanol (HSE) extracts of Hydrangea serrata Seringe on the inhibition of nitric oxide (NO), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and mitogen activating protein kinase (MAPK) phosphorylation, in LPS-induced RAW 264.7 cells. Results of the EDA test reveal that at 500 μg/mL, HSW demonstrates a good DPPH radical scavenging ability greater than 81.71%, whereas HSE demonstrates a scavenging ability greater than 89.56%. Evaluating the scavenging activity of ABTS radicals revealed that at 500 μg/mL, both HSW and HSE show superior scavenging activities of 99.4% and 96.1%, respectively. Determining the anti-inflammatory response showed that exposure to both HSW and HSE reduces the NO production in LPS-induced RAW 264.7 cells in a concentration-dependent manner, as compared to the group treated only with LPS. Moreover, exposure to both HSW and HSE resulted in a concentration-dependent inhibition of iNOS and COX-2 protein expressions. It was further confirmed that phosphorylation in the signaling pathway of MAPK was also significantly inhibited in a concentration-dependent manner. Since inhibition of MAPK phosphorylation inhibits iNOS and COX-2, which subsequently induces the expression of NO, our results indicate that extracts of Hydrangea serrata Seringe inhibit and regulate the production of inflammation-related factors. There are few reports on the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of Hydrangea serrata Seringe extracts. Therefore, considering the data obtained in the current study, we propose that Hydrangea serrata Seringe extracts have the potential to be used as useful anti-inflammatory materials in foods and cosmetics.Key words : Hydrangea serrata Seringe, COX-2, iNOS, MAPK, NO

  • When blood vessels are damaged, platelet activation and aggregation reactions are essential for the hemostasis process. On the other hand, abnormal or excessive platelet aggregation can cause cardiovascular disease. Therefore, it is important to find a substance that can inhibit platelet aggregation for the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease. This study examined the effects of isoscopoletin on U46619-induced human platelet aggregation and the effect on TXA2 production and granule secretion, including ATP and serotonin, which are the major controls. Furthermore, this study examined the effects of isoscopoletin on the regulation of PI3K/Akt and MAPK, which are phosphoproteins that act in the signaling process in platelet aggregation. As a result, isoscopoletin inhibited the phosphorylation of PI3K, Akt, and MAPK, which dose-dependently inhibited platelet aggregation via TXA2 production and decreased intracellular granule secretion, including ATP and serotonin. This paper proposes isoscopoletin as an antiplatelet substance that regulates the phosphorylation of PI3K/Akt and MAPK, which is valuable as a prophylactic and therapeutic agent for cardiovascular diseases derived from platelets.Key words : isoscopoletin, platelet aggregation, PI3K/Akt, granule secretion

  • This study was undertaken to measure the physicochemical characteristics, and tyrosinase and elastase inhibitory activity of Sophorae fructus fermented with various useful microorganisms (BS: Bacillus subtilis, CU: Candida utilis, SC: Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain CHY1011, LP: Lactobacillus plantarum, LC: Lactobacillus casei), to investigate the potential for future application of Sophorae fructus as an industrial raw material in health functional foods and cosmetics. The highest yield of freeze-dried powder of fermented Sophorae fructus was obtained with LP. The total phenol content was highest in the group fermented by CU. Maximum flavonoid contents were obtained in the control group, but the group fermented by CU had highest total flavonoid content as compared to other fermented groups. The DPPH radical scavenging activity showed IC50 values of 0.20 mg/mL and 0.18 mg/mL in the control group and the group fermented by BS, respectively, whereas the ABTS radical scavenging activities had IC50 values of 1.15 mg/mL and 0.86 mg/mL for control group and the group fermented by CU, respectively. Highest FRAP value was obtained in the CU group. Tyrosinase inhibition activity was determined to be the highest at 10 mg/mL in the LP fermented group, whereas elastase inhibition was highest at 1 mg/mL in the BS fermented group. Evaluation of the antimicrobial activity revealed inhibition of Staphylococcus aureus growth. Taken together, our results indicate that fermentation of Sophora fructose using various microorganisms has the potential to be developed for use in functional foods and cosmetics, due to the acquired property of increased antioxidant activity and enzyme inhibition.Key words : antioxidant, Sophorae fructus, fermentation, tyrosinase and elastase inhibition activity

  • A uniform cookie dough having the same ingredients was put in an oven and baked for 12, 16, 20 and 24 min. The quality characteristics, acrylamide content, and antioxidant activity were subsequently determined. Highest moisture content (4.24%) was obtained in cookies baked for 12 min, and was observed to decrease from 3.52% to 1.95% as baking time increased from 16∼24 min. Crude protein, crude fat, and ash contents were not statistically different according to baking time. Cookies baked for 12 min had the highest pH 6.62, which then decreased to 5.79 with increasing time. The L* and b* values of the cookies were observed to proportionately decrease with increasing baking time, whereas the a* value and browning index showed time-dependent increase. With increasing baking time of cookies, the total polyphenol and total flavonoid contents increased from 1.11 to 2.65 times and 1.07 to 1.24 times, respectively, as compared to cookies prepared by baking for 12 min. We further confirmed that the longer the baking time of the cookies, higher was the antioxidant activity and production of acrylamide. Taken together, our results indicate the necessity to set an appropriate time for baking cookies, by considering the content of antioxidants, antioxidant activity, and acrylamide production for the duration.Key words : cookie, baking time, acrylamide, browning, antioxidant activity

  • This study analyzed the antioxidant activity according to the storage period of pork emulsion-type sausage with various levels of kabocha powder (0%, 1%, 3%, and 5%). This study examined the proximate composition, color, pH, cooking yield, water holding capacity (WHC), texture profile analysis (TPA), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging activity, and total polyphenol contents (TPC). The moisture contents, cooking yield, WHC of the samples containing the kabocha powder were significantly higher than the control (PKey words : antioxidant, dietary fiber, kabocha, sausage, storage

  • Article l 2021-03-31

    Physicochemical Characteristics of Brown Rice Porridge Added with Colored Rice Cultivars

    Hyun-Joo Kim , Hye Young Park, Min Young Kim, Ji Yoon Lee, Jong Hee Lee, Jin Young Lee, Yu-Young Lee, Byong Won Lee, Mihyang Kim, and Byoungkyu Lee

    The physicochemical properties of brown rice (BR) porridge prepared by colored rice (CR) cultivars were investigated to select CR cultivars for BR porridge. The pH ranged from 6.73 to 6.96, and the moisture content of porridge made with Sindongjin (84.84%) was higher than that of porridge containing CR. The rotational viscosity ranged from 40.90 to 62.45 Pas: the lowest with Heukjinmi and highest with Josaengheukchal. In the case of the flow viscosity, 5.67∼7.90 cm/30 s, and the Josaengheukchal was the lowest. The starch content differed among the BR porridge with a total starch content of 12.01~13.51%, amylose content of 2.16~3.23%, total sugar content of 3.13~4.82 mg/g, and reducing sugar content of 0.24~0.38 mg/g. The lightness was 43.06~81.93, with the lowest observed with Heukjinmi and the highest with Geonganahongmi. The sensory evaluation showed that the porridge made with black CR obtained a higher preference than the porridge made with red CR, but scored lower than that of Sindongjin used as a control. Overall, Josaengheukchal and Heukjinmi are suitable cultivars for the production of BR porridge containing CR, but further studies will be needed to improve the sensory characteristics.Key words : colored rice, brown rice, porridge, quality

  • Article l 2021-03-31

    Optimization of Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction of Antioxidant from Cirsium setidens Using Response Surface Methodology

    Hye Lin Kim , Ji Woo Hong, Seong Jin Jeon, Hwa Yeong Kim, and Jin Woo Kim

    This study was conducted to optimize the ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) conditions for maximizing the responses, including total phenolic compound (TPC), total flavonoid compound (TFC), and radical scavenging activity (RSA) from Cirsium setidens using a response surface methodology (RSM). The following three variables were used to optimize the UAE process using the central composite method: extraction time (X₁: 5.0∼55.0 min), extraction temperature (X₂: 26.0∼94.0°C), and ethanol concentration (X₃: 0.0∼99.5%). The maximum yield of TPC (5.21 mg GAE/g DM), TFC (1.00 mg QE/g DM) and radical scavenging activity (86.7%) were obtained under the optimal conditions of 34.5 min, 63.7°C, and 62.2%. No significant differences were observed between the predicted and experimental values, indicating the suitability of the fitted model and the successful application of CCD. Based on these results, the antioxidant activity of the Cirsium setidens extract can be increased by optimizing the UAE conditions, and the extract can be used as a material for cosmetics, food, and medicine.Key words : Cirsium setidens, optimization, ultrasound-assisted extraction, central composite design model, antioxidant activity

  • Article l 2021-03-31

    Optimization of Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction for Triterpene Compounds from Centella asiatica Using Response Surface Methodology

    Eunjeong Seong , Huijin Heo, Sewon Oh, Daeil Kim, Keum-Il Jang, and Junsoo Lee

    Centella asiatica is a psychoactive medicinal plant belonging to the Apiaceae family. The major bioactive compounds of Centella asiatica are triterpene saponins, including madecassoside, asiaticoside, madecassic acid, and asiatic acid. This study aimed to optimize the ultrasound-assisted extraction conditions to extract triterpenes from Centella asiatica using response surface methodology. A Box-Behnken design was employed to develop the following three extracting parameters, methanol concentration (X1: 60∼100%), extraction time (X2: 10∼50 min), and ultrasonic power (X3: 150∼250 W). The optimal extraction conditions of madecassoside (83.14 mg/g dry weight) and asiaticoside (19.71 mg/g dry weight) were obtained at X1=80%, X2=30 min, and X3=200 W. The predicted values from the model matched well with the experimental results obtained using the optimal extraction conditions. The coefficients of variation for the inter-day and intra-day precisions were less than 5%. The limits of detection for madecassoside, asiaticoside, madecassic acid, and asiatic acid were 0.32, 0.71, 0.09, and 0.15 μg/mL, respectively. These results indicate that the validation parameters were generally reliable and satisfactory.Key words : optimization, ultrasound-assisted extraction, Centella asiatica, response surface methodology, triterpene

  • Article l 2021-03-31

    Effect of Light-Emitting Diode (LED) Wavelengths on Growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Xiaotong Xu , Ji-Eun Lee, So-Mi Jeong, Woo-Sin Kang, Si-Hyeong Ryu, Han-Ho Kim, Su-Ryong Kim, Ga-Hye Lee, and Dong-Hyun Ahn

    Light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are divided into ultraviolet LEDs (UV-LEDs), visible LEDs (Vis-LEDs), and infrared LEDs (IR-LEDs). LEDs of different wavelengths have different functions. This study examined the effects of different wavelengths on the growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. S. cerevisiae cells were incubated for 48 h at 30°C. Subsequently, S. cerevisiae suspensions were diluted to 1×103∼1×104 CFU/mL and 1×107 CFU/mL. The S. cerevisiae suspensions were then exposed to UV-LED (270 nm and 365 nm), Vis-LED (465∼475 nm and 620∼630 nm), and IR-LED (850 nm and 5,000∼7,000 nm), with a lamp-to-suspension distance of 4.5 cm. The microorganisms were irradiated by 270 nm UV-LED for 10 and 30 min and 365 nm UV-LED, Vis-LED, and IR-LED for 60 and 180 min, respectively. Among the LEDs used, the 465∼475 nm Vis-LED had the strongest inhibitory ability on S. cerevisiae. In contrast, the 620∼630 nm Vis-LED and infrared LED showed either low antibacterial activity or even no bacteriostatic ability.Key words : light-emitting diode (LED), Saccharomyces cerevisiae, inhibitory ability, different wavelengths

  • Note l 2021-03-31

    Quality Characteristics of Grilled Fish Paste Formulation Added with Hot Water Extract Powder from Lentinus edodes Using One-Way ANOVA

    Jung Hwan Oh , Jung Im Lee, Fatih Karadeniz, Hye Ran Kim, So Young Park, Kyung Im Jung, Byung-Jin Jeon, Dongmin Kim, Jae Ha Park, and Chang-Suk Kong

    This study was undertaken to optimize the formulation for grilled fish paste using a one-way analysis of variance (one-way ANOVA). The independent variable used was the Lentinus edodes hot water extract powder (LEP), which was supplemented at four varied concentrations (0, 1, 3, 5%). Rheological properties and sensory evaluation were executed for the final product. Prior to the one-way ANOVA, the statistical hypothesis was confirmed by analysis of normality, homogeneity and independency. According to the Kolmogorov-Smirnov normality test results derived from changes in the quality characteristics of grilled fish paste supplemented with LEP, the populations of response variables (hardness, springiness, whiteness, overall preference) were normally distributed (P>0.05). With further homogeneity assumption applying the Bartlett’s test, variances were equal under the assumption that the population data at factor levels were normally distributed (P>0.05). Increasing the amount of LEP in the grill fish paste resulted in increased hardness; especially, at 3% LEP and 5% LEP, the confidence internal did not include the null hypothesis, confirming that there was a significant difference under the 95% confidence interval (C.I). Springiness showed no significant difference under the 95% C.I. Whiteness was decreased with LEP addition in a concentration-dependent manner, and was significantly different under the 95% C.I. Sensory evaluation revealed that grilled fish paste containing 1% LEP had the highest score in overall preference, but comparison of the 3% and 5% LEP showed no significant difference under the 95% C.I. Taken together, these results suggest that grilled fish paste supplemented with 1% LEP is a desirable method to increase sensory evaluation.Key words : grilled fish paste, Lentinus edodes, one-way ANOVA, quality characteristics

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March, 2021
Vol.50 No.3

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Print ISSN 1226-3311 Online ISSN 2288-5978