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JKFN Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition



Online ISSN 2288-5978

Current Issue

  • Review l 2024-02-29

    Research Trends on the Quality Characteristics of Coffee Based on Coffee Bean Processing

    Jinju Park , Ki-Bae Hong , and Sung-Soo Park

    This study classified and analyzed 142 studies related to the quality characteristics of coffee based on coffee bean processing process. The classification included the processing processes and sensory and functional quality characteristics. The processing process was further analyzed by dividing it into roasting, extraction, addition, and soaking. Within the roasting category, 61 papers were organized into three subcategories based on whether the roasting process maintained a specific temperature, changed to a different temperature, or followed the Specialty Coffee Association classification method. In the extraction category, 48 papers were organized, including 20 on espresso, 14 on hand drip, 6 on French press, and 3 on cold brew, etc. The addition and steeping category included 16 papers, with 11 focusing on addition and 4 on steeped coffee, and 1 on a different method. In terms of sensory quality characteristics, 82 papers were categorized into five groups: description analysis, pH, color, acidity, and sweetness. Papers related to aroma components are organized separately. For functional quality characteristics, 83 papers were classified into 7 categories, including chlorogenic acid, DPPH radical scavenging activity, caffeine. The study suggests that continuous research on the quality characteristics of coffee ingredients, varying with of coffee bean processing process, can aid in product development by identifying effective ingredients. Furthermore, this research contributes to understanding the evolving trends in coffee and supports the development of the coffee industry.Key words : coffee, aroma, roasting, extract, quality

  • This study evaluated the antioxidant and anti-parkinsonian effects of edible insect [Gryllus bimaculatus (Gb) and Oxya chinensis sinuosa (Ocs)] extracts, in a planarian (Dugesia japonica) model, exposed to 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) and/or 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine hydrochloride (MPTP). The effects of Gb and Ocs, on planarian locomotor velocity (pLMV), planarian seizure-like activity (pSLA), and antioxidant activities were examined. Neither Gb nor Ocs alone had any significant effect on phenotype, pLMV, or pSLA when optimal concentrations of insect extracts were evaluated for 5 min, whereas 6-OHDA plus MPTP produced dose-dependent symptoms of parkinsonism such as phenotype alteration, decreased pLMV, and increased pSLA. In particular, planarians exposed to 6-OHDA showed only a head-bop-like pattern, not the screw-like, snake-like, or c-like patterns, whereas MPTP did not induce any seizure-like behavioral pattern. Furthermore, treatment with combined insect extracts significantly recovered the parkinsonism induced by different concentrations of 6-OHDA and MPTP by restoring, pLMV, pSLA, and phenotypic alterations. When the antioxidant effects of insect extracts were evaluated via catalase and superoxide dismutase activities, and lipid peroxidation level in planarian lysates co-treated with 6-OHDA or MPTP and Gb or Ocs, the antioxidant effects remained at the non-treated control level. Collectively, the study suggests Gb and Ocs extracts might be useful anti-parkinsonian drugs with potent antioxidant activity, and that 6-OHDA may be more useful than MPTP for anti-parkinsonian drug screening using Dugesia japonica models of parkinsonian.Key words : antioxidant, edible insect extracts, Parkinson’s disease, planaria

  • Article l 2024-02-29

    The Antioxidant, Anti-Aging, Immunomodulatory, and Whitening Effects of Moringa oleifera

    Wan-Taek Lim , Chang-Eui Hong , and Su-Yun Lyu

    This study examined the antioxidant, anti-aging, immunomodulatory, and whitening effects of four Moringa oleifera products: oil, fermented capsule, powder, and tea. All four products scavenged free radicals, but only the fermented capsule boosted the superoxide dismutase activity. The fermented capsule, powder, and tea also reduced the elastase and tyrosinase activity, suggesting that M. oleifera has anti-aging and whitening effects. In addition, all products except for the oil had immunomodulatory effects by reducing nitric oxide and tumor necrosis factor-alpha production. On the other hand, interleukin-6 secretion did not change. In conclusion, these findings suggest that M. oleifera has the potential to protect against cell damage, improve skin health, and modulate the immune system.Key words : Moringa oleifera, antioxidant, anti-aging, immunomodulatory, whitening

  • Article l 2024-02-29

    Effect of Cydonia oblonga Miller Fruit Extract on Glucose Metabolism in L6 Rat Skeletal Muscle Cells

    Jae In Jung , Jung Soon Hwang , Myeong Oh Hwang , and Eun Ji Kim

    The fruit of Cydonia oblonga Miller (COM) is used as food and traditional medicine to prevent or treat metabolic diseases, including obesity and type 2 diabetes in the Mediterranean region. However, the anti-diabetic effect of COM and its mechanism of action have yet to be elucidated. Here, we investigated the effects of the COM extract (COME) on glucose consumption, glucose uptake, glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) expression, and activation of protein kinase B (Akt) and adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in L6 rat skeletal muscle cells to explore the anti-diabetic activity of COME and the underlying mechanism of action. L6 cells were treated with COME (0∼600 μg/mL). COME significantly increased glucose consumption, lactate production, and glucose uptake in the L6 cells. In addition, COME increased the expression of GLUT4 and the phosphorylation of the insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1), Akt, and AMPK in L6 cells. These results indicate that COME promotes glucose metabolism by increasing glucose uptake into cells by activating the insulin-dependent IRS-1/PI3K/Akt signaling pathway and the insulin-independent AMPK signaling pathway in skeletal muscle cells, suggesting the potential use of COME in the development of an anti-diabetic agent.Key words : Cydonia oblonga, glucose uptake, GLUT4, Akt, AMPK

  • Article l 2024-02-29

    HPLC Analytical Method Validation for Xanthohumol in Hop (Humulus lupulus) Extract for Its Standardization as a Functional Ingredient

    Ga-Hee Ryu , Min-Ji Nam, Jae-Hwan Choi, Sung-Seob Yun, Ji-Won Shim, Jae-Wook Shin, Woon-Hee Jung, Kyoung-Bong Lee, and Dong-Joo Kwon

    This study was performed to establish a high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analytical method for determining xanthohumol in hop (Humulus lupulus) extract for its standardization as a functional ingredient. The analytical method was validated based on the ‘Guideline on Preparing Dossiers for Functional Ingredient Recognition of Health Functional Food’ of the Ministry of Food and Drug Safety of Korea and the International Conference on Harmonization guidelines to determine its reliability and validity in terms of specificity, linearity, accuracy, precision, limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ). The specificity was confirmed by the chromatogram obtained from the HPLC analysis method, as well as by the results of ultraviolet/visible spectra. The correlation coefficient (R2) was calculated to be close to 1, confirming that this was a suitable analysis with high linearity. Xanthohumol recovery ranged from 96.76 to 101.30% with relative standard deviation (RSD) values of less than 5%, and the repeatability and reproducibility of precision were confirmed to be 0.32∼0.85% and 0.18∼0.70% for the RSD, respectively, which implies that this method has high accuracy and precision. In addition, the LOD was 0.26 μg/mL, and the LOQ was 0.80 μg/mL, confirming that detection was valid at low concentrations. These results indicate that the proposed HPLC method for the detection of xanthohumol in hop extract is simple, reliable, and reproducible.Key words : hop (Humulus lupulus), xanthohumol, method validation, HPLC, functional ingredient

  • Article l 2024-02-29

    A Study of the Biological Activity of Tillandsia ionantha Extracts in LPS-Induced RAW 264.7 Cells

    Jung-Wook Kang , Ji-Won Hur , Dan-Hee Yoo, Mi-Kyung Park, Hang-Eui Cho, and In-Chul Lee

    This study aimed to study the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory potential of Tillandsia ionantha, as a natural material by studying various physiological effects. T. ionantha is known for its strong anti-cancer activity and a high moisture absorption ability. T. ionantha was distilled with hot water (TID) and 70% ethanol (TIE) to obtain the relevant extracts. These extracts showed excellent antioxidant effects in terms of their electron-donating ability and 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) radical scavenging activity. After measuring the cell viability of the TID, TIE extracts, and indomethacin in RAW 264.7 cells, subsequent experiments were conducted. At a concentration of 500 μg/mL, TID and TIE extract inhibited nitric oxide production, by 23.09% and 25.74%, respectively. It was also confirmed that TID and TIE extracts decreased the expression of PGE2 and TNF-α in a concentration-dependent manner. Both TID and TIE extracts decreased the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase 2. Therefore, the results of this study confirmed that the TID and TIE extracts have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects and have a high potential for use as natural materials for these purposes.Key words : Tillandsia ionantha, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, natural material

  • This study investigated the quality characteristics of tea obtained by the pan-roasting and steaming methods with the aim of increasing the functional effects of substitute tea prepared from the cortex of Kalopanax pictus. After 10 min of steam treatment followed by pan-roasting, the samples from the SKP group had a higher soluble solids content compared to those from the KP group, which underwent pan-roasting without steam treatment. The KP group samples had lower polyphenol content than those of the SKP group and SKP9 (by steamed 10 min and pan-roasting 9 min) showed the highest polyphenol content. Also, the SKP group had higher flavonoid contents than the KP group, with the highest flavonoid content found in SKP9. In the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging test, SKP9 showed the highest antioxidant activity. The 2,2-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) radical scavenging test showed similar results. The activity tended to increase with pan-roasting along with the steaming method compared to only pan-roasting.Key words : Kalopanax pictus, pan-roasting, steaming, tea, antioxidant activity

  • This study aimed to investigate methods for increasing protein intake among the elderly. Pork and beef samples were treated in saturated vapor ovens, and tenderizing agents, including sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3), phosphate complex and acetylated distarch adipate in a pineapple pulp solution were added. The results of the physicochemical analysis showed that the addition of increasing amounts of tenderizing agents increased the moisture content and pH values, whereas cooking loss and hardness decreased (PKey words : senior-friendly products, saturated vapor, marinating, Korean Industrial Standard

  • Two γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) producing Lactococcus spp. strains (K1180 and K1296) were isolated from kimchi. When incubated in MRS containing 1% monosodium glutamate at 30°C, both strains steadily increased GABA production from 24 to 48 hours. An antibiotic resistance evaluation of the two strains to determine their potential as probiotics showed that they met the safety criteria set by the European Food Safety Authority and were highly susceptible to all drugs investigated. Both strains lacked erythrocyte hemolytic activity, produced no biogenic amines, and displayed antibacterial activity against Klebsiella pneumoniae. In addition, both exhibited high survival rates of ca. 90% in artificial gastric juice at pH 3.0 and of ca. 50% in artificial bile salts at 0.5%. Notably, both strains also achieved adherences of >95% to intestinal epithelial cells. These findings confirm the probiotic potentials of Lactococcus lactis K1180 and K1296.Key words : GABA, probiotics, Lactococcus, kimchi

  • Article l 2024-02-29

    Exploring the Impact of Sugar-Free Cookies on Glycemic Metabolism and Potential Health Benefits

    Hee Jin Han , Minchul Gim, Hoyeon Shin, Hyunsook Jang, Gyeong-Hweon Lee, and Yoo Kyoung Park

    As sugar consumption increases, concerns regarding the associated diseases and health issues are growing. Consequently, ‘Zero’ products, which are sugar-free but use artificial or natural sweeteners, have become popular. With the growing interest in sugar-free products, safety concerns and curiosity about the health benefits have risen. In light of current trends, this study was carried out to ensure consumer awareness and enable safe consumption. A cross-over study was conducted with two types of cookies: sugar-free cookies and sugar cookies. Both types of cookies weighed 84 g per test meal and contained 22.4 g of sugar alcohol and 25.5 g of sugar, respectively. The subjects were 15 non-diabetic adults. Blood samples were collected to measure the blood glucose, insulin, and glucagon levels, and an oral glucose tolerance test was performed. After 15 min, the sugar-free cookies (93.5±9.9 mg/dL) showed lower blood glucose levels than sugar cookies (106.7±15.9 mg/dL, P=0.020). The area under the curve (AUC) for insulin was significantly lower with the sugar-free cookies (31.30±15.82 mg/dL×min) compared to the sugar cookies (52.34±25.60 mg/dL×min; P=0.013). In contrast, the glucagon AUC was significantly higher with the sugar-free cookies (19,711.49±5,281.81 pg/mL×min; P=0.005) compared to the sugar cookies (14,048.25±4,909.47 pg/mL×min; P=0.005), indicating an opposite trend to insulin. After 90 minutes, the sugar-free cookies demonstrated a lower insulin-to-glucagon ratio (P=0.002), suggesting that sugar-free cookies have a superior capacity to control blood glucose levels. This study indicates that replacing sugar-containing cookies with sugar-free cookies can induce lower blood glucose and insulin levels and higher glucagon levels.Key words : sugar-free, sugar alcohol, glucose metabolism, insulin, glucagon

  • This study examined the nutritional status of university students in Gwangju according to their residence types. The subjects were 216 university students (90 males, 126 females) from five universities in Gwangju, who were recruited through proportional stratified sampling. A self-report survey was conducted. A χ2-test, Student’s t-test, and analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) were performed using SPSS 25.0. Female students were often living with parents (P=0.019) and showed lower scores of diversity (P=0.001), moderation (P=0.026), and dietary behavior (P=0.008) in the nutrition quotient (NQ) compared to male students (P=0.000). The effect of gender was adjusted, and dormitory students had significantly lower balance scores in the NQ than students living with parents (P=0.003). Students living with parents had a lower moderation ability over sweets (P=0.004) and a higher level of picky eating (P=0.032). The students living apart or in the dormitory consumed less fruit (P=0.000) and frequently skipped breakfast (P=0.001). In particular, students living in the dormitory consumed fewer eggs (P=0.039) and had a lower moderation ability over sweets (P=0.004). This study identified potential nutritional problems according to the university students’ residence types, and intervention strategies were suggested.Key words : residence characteristics, nutrition status, nutrition quotient, universities, young adults

  • This study evaluated the food safety knowledge and practices of employees and volunteers involved in the production, packaging, holding, and delivery stages of home-delivered meal services for the elderly. A total of 135 employees and volunteers were surveyed at 27 senior welfare centers nationwide. A statistical data analysis was completed using the SPSS program for descriptive analysis and t-test. Of the respondents, volunteers and employees comprised 57.0%, and 43.0%, respectively. The total score for food safety knowledge was 11.02 out of 15 points. In the food safety knowledge area, the employees and volunteers scored 11.44 and 10.76 points, respectively, showing no significant difference between the two groups. In the category of food safety knowledge, there was a significant difference between workers and volunteers in the evaluation scores of ‘food storage (PKey words : home-delivered meal service, elderly, food safety, knowledge, practices

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February 2024
Vol.53 No.2

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Print ISSN 1226-3311 Online ISSN 2288-5978