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JKFN Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition



Online ISSN 2288-5978

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  • Vascular abnormalities are a major risk factor in heart disease and have a high mortality rate. The mortality rate of heart disease is increasing every year due to lifestyle changes and the extension of lifespans. Therefore, the development of functional materials for the prevention of heart disease is required. In this study, the effect of mulberry root bark extracts and their compounds (resveratrol, oxyresveratrol, mulberroside A, morusin) on vascular health were investigated. The 100% ethanol extract of mulberry root bark resulted in the highest inhibition of cholesterol synthesis (−95%, PKey words : mulberry root bark, cholesterol, vascular disease, oxyresveratrol, morusin

  • Article l 2022-07-31

    Effect of Eurycoma longifolia Extract on Testosterone Synthesis in TM3 Leydig Cells under Oxidative Stress

    Jae In Jung , Sangwon Eun , Jae Kyoung Lee , Young Ha Seo , Mun Hyoung Bae , Ryong Kim , and Eun Ji Kim

    Animal and human studies have suggested that Eurycoma longifolia extract (ELE) ameliorates andropause symptoms by increasing testosterone levels. However, the mechanisms responsible for this effect have yet to be elucidated. We examined the effects of ELE on testosterone levels and the expressions of steroidogenic enzymes in TM3 Leydig cells under H2O2-induced oxidative stress. When cells were treated with 50 μM H2O2, testosterone levels and the expressions of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) (involved in cholesterol transport) and 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3β-HSD) and 17-α-hydroxylase (CYP17A1) (involved in testosterone synthesis) were significantly decreased. On the other hand, the expressions of 5α-reductase and aromatase, which convert testosterone to dihydrotestosterone and estradiol, respectively, were increased. In addition, ELE significantly increased testosterone levels and the expressions of StAR, 3β-HSD, and CYP17A1, but decreased 5α-reductase and aromatase expressions in TM3 cells exposed to H2O2-induced oxidative stress. These results indicate that ELE protects against oxidative stress-induced testosterone reduction by increasing cholesterol transport and testosterone synthesis and decreasing testosterone conversion. These observations suggest ELE might be used to alleviate the symptoms of andropause caused by low testosterone levels.Key words : Eurycoma longifolia, Leydig cells, testosterone, oxidative stress, steroidogenic enzyme

  • The present study aimed to delineate yearly trends in the daily consumption of seafood and investigate the socioeconomic factors influencing seafood consumption among elderly Koreans. Data from the 2009 to 2019 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) was used, and a total of 12,171 subjects aged 65 years or older were included in this study. Seafood intake was assessed by a 24-hour dietary recall. Yearly trends of seafood or protein intake were analyzed via multiple regression analysis. The results showed that the consumption of seafood, including fish, shellfish, and seaweed increased during the past decade (PKey words : seafood consumption, animal protein, socio-economic factors, Korean elderly

  • Article l 2022-07-31

    Antioxidant and Hepatoprotective Effects of Different Varieties of Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) with Variation in Lignan Content

    Min Young Kim , Sungup Kim, Jung In Kim, Eunyoung Oh, Sang Woo Kim, Jeongeun Lee, Eunsoo Lee, and Myoung Hee Lee

    This study was performed to investigate the distribution of the functional compounds in different varieties of sesame (cv. Daheuk, cv. Goenbaek, cv. Milyang 74) during processing, as well as their antioxidant and hepatoprotective effects. The total polyphenol and flavonoid content ranged from 0.37∼2.79 mg gallic acid equivalent/g and 0.03∼1.13 mg catechin equivalent/g in different varieties of sesame, roasted sesame, sesame oil, and sesame meal. The major lignans were identified as sesamin, sesamolin, sesaminol, sesaminol diglucoside, and sesaminol triglucoside. The highest total lignan content (10.87∼19.44 mg/g) and ABTS radical scavenging activity (1.76∼5.14 mg Trolox equivalent/g) were observed in the Milyang 74 cultivar regardless of processing. Furthermore, extracts of Milyang 74 effectively improved cell viability and inhibited reactive oxygen species generation in oxidative stress-induced HepG2 cells. These results suggest that the Milyang 74 cultivar could effectively mediate physiological activity. The study provides valuable information for the use of sesame as a functional food material.Key words : sesame, sesame oil, lignan, antioxidant activity, hepatoprotective effect

  • Article l 2022-07-31

    Synergistic Protective Effect of Agastache rugosa and Centella asiatica against UVB-Induced Damage in Human Skin Fibroblasts

    Minha Kim , Seungjun Lee, Huijin Heo, Jong-Wook Chung, Jeehye Sung, Heon Sang Jeong, and Junsoo Lee

    Ultraviolet B (UVB) irradiation is a major cause of the photoaging of human skin. Centella asiatica (CA) has been used as an effective anti-photoaging agent, mainly because it increases type Ⅰ collagen levels. On the other hand Agastache rugosa (AR) is a source of bioactive compounds that protect human skin fibroblasts against UVB irradiation by restoring the antioxidant defense. In this study, we investigated the synergistic protective effects of CA and AR in combination (CA-AR) against UVB-induced damage in human skin fibroblasts (Hs68 cells). Cell viabilities and protective effects were examined using an MTT assay with or without UVB irradiation (30 mJ/cm2). CA, AR, and CA-AR did not have a cytotoxic effect. The synergistic effects of CA and AR were analyzed using combination indices (CI) and isobologram models, and the optimal CA to AR ratio was 3:7. CA, AR, and CA-AR 3:7 increased cell viability by 87%, 80%, and 98%, respectively in UVB irradiated Hs68 cells, and at this ratio. CA-AR 3:7 had CI values ranging from 0.03 to 0.41 and was 71∼97% more effective than CA or AR alone against UVB-induced photoaging. These results suggest that the CA-AR combination has potential use in functional foods and cosmeceutical preparations.Key words : Centella asiatica, Agastache rugosa, synergistic effects, protection, human skin fibroblasts

  • Article l 2022-07-31

    Effect of Quercetin on Paclitaxel-Induced Cell Cycle Arrest and Apoptosis

    Taehee Kim , Hee Ju Song, and Sang Do Lee

    Paclitaxel is an effective chemotherapeutic agent that is cytotoxic not only to cancer cells but also to normal cells. Thus, in order to reduce the side effects, the co-administration of paclitaxel and natural products such as flavonoids has been proposed. To investigate the anticancer effects of co-treatment of paclitaxel (0.5 and 5 nM) with quercetin (25 and 50 μM), we determined the anti-proliferative effects in MDA-MB-453 cells. Decreased cell proliferation was observed in a dose- and time-dependent manner following co-treatment of 0.5 nM paclitaxel with quercetin. In contrast, co-treatment with 5 nM paclitaxel and quercetin reduced the anti-proliferative effects compared to paclitaxel alone treatment. Next, we investigated the effects on apoptosis and the cell cycle. We observed that 0.5 nM paclitaxel with quercetin resulted in an increased number of apoptotic cells, whereas 5 nM paclitaxel with quercetin reduced the number of apoptotic cells. Moreover, the combined treatment of paclitaxel and quercetin increased cell cycle arrest at the G2/M phase in both the 0.5 and 5 nM paclitaxel groups. We then examined cell cycle-related protein expressions to investigate the mechanism of cell cycle regulation. The results showed that co-treatment of paclitaxel with quercetin regulated not only G1-related proteins but also G2/M-related proteins. These results indicate that the combined treatment of paclitaxel with quercetin increases cell cycle disruption via regulation of cell cycle-related proteins and decreases the incidence of apoptosis in MDA-MB-453 cells.Key words : cell cycle, MDA-MB-453, paclitaxel, quercetin

  • Article l 2022-07-31

    Evaluation of the Thiamine, Riboflavin, and Niacin Contents in Fermented Soybean Processed Foods in Various Korean Provinces

    Younghyeon Jang , Jinsoo Jeon , Sang Hoon Lee , Young Min Choi , and Myoung-Gun Choung

    Soybean is an important part of the Korean diet, and has been used as an ingredients in various dishes. However, there is limited information available on water-soluble vitamin B in fermented soybean foods, such as soybean paste, soy sauce, and red pepper paste. Therefore, this study performed quantitative analyses using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to evaluate the thiamine, riboflavin, and niacin contents in Korean traditional soybean fermented foods. Also, it verified the HPLC analysis method through the review of linearity, sensitivity, selectivity, accuracy, and precision parameters. Afterward, distribution characteristics were evaluated by conducting principal component analysis (PCA) and box-and-whisker plots. As a result, the thiamine content in soybean paste, soy sauce, and red pepper paste was 1.837∼7.438, 0.124∼3.836, and 2.797∼5.785 mg/kg, respectively. The riboflavin content of soybean paste was 1.439∼2.118 mg/kg, soy sauce was 0.864∼1.400 mg/kg, and red pepper paste was 2.300∼3.314 mg/kg. The niacin content was in the range of 3.929∼11.479 mg/kg for soybean paste, 5.350∼12.360 mg/kg for soy sauce, and 16.088∼31.259 mg/kg for red pepper paste. When PCA was performed, it was confirmed that the content could be divided into groups according to the type of traditional soybean fermented foods. The box-and-whisker plot result proved that in the case of soybean paste, the variation in the content of thiamine among the districts was large compared to those of soy sauce and red pepper paste. The results of this study will be used to provide a database for preparing the 10th edition of the Korean Food Composition Table.Key words : fermented soybean food, vitamin B, thiamine, riboflavin, niacin

  • This study was undertaken to investigate the physicochemical quality characteristics, acrylamide, bioactive compound contents, and antioxidant activity of coffee beans after roasting at varying durations. The moisture content of coffee beans was highest in the green beans and decreased sharply with increasing roasting time. Moreover, roasting resulted in a decrease in the crude protein content and an increase in the crude fat content of coffee beans, but there was no significant difference according to the roasting times. Maximum brightness of coffee beans and powder were obtained in the control, the total polyphenols and total flavonoids increased in the initial roasting stage but decreased as the roasting time increased. The antioxidant activity also increased in the initial stage of roasting but decreased as the roasting time exceeded 20 min. The acrylamide content of coffee beans roasted for 5 and 10 min increased to 8.93 and 53.13 ng/g of the sample, respectively, but decreased with roasting times more than 20 min. Taken together, our results indicate that although the antioxidant activity generally increased with heat treatment, excessive roasting for more than 10 min at 180°C led to decomposition of phenolic compounds, reduction of antioxidant activity, and decomposition of acrylamide. Therefore, it is necessary to set optimal roasting conditions for making good quality coffee beans.Key words : acrylamide, antioxidant activity, coffee bean, roasting time

  • To maintain the freshness and good quality of roasted coffee during storage, we developed the highly antioxidative medicoffee supplemented with Scutellaria baicalensis. Green coffee beans were immersed in Scutellaria baicalensis extract (SBE) and subjected to either heat immersion (HE) or ultrasonic immersion (SO). Changes in the antioxidant activities and rancidity were examined over time during the storage at 40°C for 4 weeks. The total polyphenols and flavonoid contents were overall higher in the order HE> SO> Control, and decreased as the storage period increased. However, compared to the ultrasonic immersion method, the heat immersion method maintained significantly higher content of both components throughout the storage period. Antioxidant activity of all coffees measured by DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activity and SOD-like activity tended to decrease significantly with the storage period. HE coffee showed the highest level compared to SO and Control even at week 4: 88.76% DPPH, 89.07% ABTS, and 75.75% SOD. The acid value (AV) and peroxide value (POV) increased over time, and levels obtained were in the order Control> SO> HE. The AV of Control increased significantly up to 29.95 mg/g at week 4, while levels in HE were remarkably lower (18.31 mg/g). The POV increased up to 38.44 meq/kg for Control compared with a much lower level of 26.98 meq/kg for HE. Overall, coffee supplemented with SBE was able to maintain high antioxidant activity after roasting, which is probably due to imparting a protective effect on lipid oxidation.Key words : Scutellaria baicalensis, green coffee bean, antioxidant activity, rancidity, DPPH

  • This study analyzed the effects of pomegranate seed powder (PS) used for nitrite replacement in emulsion- type chicken breast sausage. The emulsion-type sausages were manufactured with varying levels of PS (0%, 1%, 2%, and 3%), and stored at 4°C for 3 weeks. The study examined the physicochemical properties including cooking yield, proximate composition, pH, color and nitrite residue, and storage properties including DPPH free radical scavenging activity (DPPH), thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS), volatile basic nitrogen (VBN). The cooking yield showed no significant differences between the control and all the PS samples (P>0.05). The pH and lightness values significantly decreased with increasing levels of PS (P0.05). The hue value of the control was significantly lower than that of sample with 1% PS (PKey words : pomegranate seed, nitrite replacement, color properties, storage properties, sausage

  • Article l 2022-07-31

    Quality Characteristics of Collagen Stick Jelly Made Using Korean Plums

    Samuel Park , Yeji Kwon , Teawan Kim, Seung Hwan Lee, Ik-Jo Chun , Young-Eun Cho , and Jeehye Sung

    Plums contain a large amount of biologically active compounds such as flavonoids and anthocyanins, which display high potential as a resource for the development of functional foods. Collagen stick jelly supplemented with various fruit concentrates has recently been developed due to the beneficial effects of collagen on skin aging and joint health and its antioxidant effects. This study examined the physicochemical, sensory qualities, and antioxidant activity of collagen stick jelly made with plums grown in Uiseong. Plum collagen jelly was divided into four groups including plum concentrate containing stevia with purified water (WC0), plum concentrate with purified water (WC1), plum concentrate containing stevia with plum juice (JC0), and plum concentrate with plum juice (JC1). The results showed that JC had a higher L* (nominal) value and b* (yellow degree) value than other jellies. The total sugar content of WC was higher than that of JC, which may have been influenced by the addition of plum concentrate. JC, with the addition of plum concentrate, showed higher polyphenol and flavonoid contents as well as antioxidant potential, including radical scavenging activity and reducing power compared to the jellies supplemented with purified water. The sensory qualities of JC1 indicated that among all the jellies, it had the best taste, flavor, and overall likeability with high sweetness and a plum flavor. This study provides a perspective on use of Korean plums as a potential dietary supplement.Key words : Korean plum, collagen stick jelly, quality characteristics, antioxidant activity

  • The objectives of this study were to determine factors affecting fermentation of chili pepper seeds by Bacillus subtilis and to analyze their quality characteristics during fermentation. We profiled the microbiological quality of chili pepper seeds. The numbers of total aerobic bacteria, coliform, and yeast/mold in the chili pepper seeds were 7.03, 4.02, and 4.37 log CFU/g, respectively, but Escherichia coli was not detected from the samples tested. Chili pepper seeds were immersed in 50 mL, 75 mL, 100 mL, 125 mL, or 150 mL of water, inoculated with B. subtilis, and fermented at 25°C, 30°C, 35°C, or 40°C for up to 7 days. The most rapid growth of B. subtilis occurred when chili pepper seeds were mixed with 75 mL of water and fermented at 40°C. The proximate composition of the chili pepper seeds did not change significantly during the fermentation, but the amount of capsaicinoids decreased by approximately 90% after 7 days of fermentation. The total polyphenolic content and antioxidant activity of chili pepper seeds increased during the fermentation.Key words : Bacillus subtilis, capsaicinoid, Capsicum annuum L., chili pepper seeds, fermentation

  • Note l 2022-07-31

    High Temperature and Pressure Treated Garlic: Antioxidant and Antiaging Effect on Skin

    Yeon Jae Jo , Tae Whan Shin, Junsoo Lee, and Heon Sang Jeong

    This study evaluated the antioxidant and skin anti-aging effects of heated garlic. The garlic was heated at 130℃ for 2 hours. The antioxidant ABTS and DPPH radical scavenging activities of raw garlic were 8.02 and 8.95 mg AAE/extract g, respectively, which increased to 91.43 and 40.59 AAE/extract g, respectively, after heating. The total polyphenol content increased from 8.11 mg/extract g for raw garlic to 241.55 mg/extract g in the ethyl acetate fraction of heated garlic. Tyrosinase and collagenase inhibitory activities of the heated garlic were 19.42% and 26.22% at 5 mg/mL, respectively, which increased to 82.96% and 62.43% at 5 mg/mL in the ethyl acetate fraction, respectively. Taken together, our results indicate that heating garlic can be used to develop functional foods and cosmetic materials with improved physiological activity. These results also suggest that heated garlic has the potential to be used in anti-wrinkle and whitening cosmetic materials.Key words : garlic, heat treatment, antioxidant activity, skin anti-aging effect

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July, 2022
Vol.51 No.7

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Print ISSN 1226-3311 Online ISSN 2288-5978