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JKFN Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition



Online ISSN 2288-5978

Current Issue

  • Article l 2021-11-30

    Antioxidant Effect of Raphanus sativus L. through the Suppression of Reactive Oxygen Species Production

    Kyung-A Hwang , Hye-Jeong Hwang, and Yu Jin Hwang

    Radish (Raphanus sativus L.) is a root vegetable native to southeast and central Asia and has been traditionally used in the treatment of constipation, indigestion, and stomach disorders. Radish is classified into various cultivars according to their shape and color. The main ingredients of white radish that are commonly known are flavonoids, arvelexin, and glucosinolate. In addition, red radish contains anthocyanin. These ingredients have been reported to have antidiabetic, anticancer, and antioxidant effects, but no research has yet compared the antioxidant activity of white and red radish. Therefore, in this study, the antioxidant effects of Ganghwa turnip (RG) and Jeju winter radish (RJ) were investigated. Evaluation of DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activity, the major indicators of antioxidant activity, confirmed significant antioxidant effects at a 200 μg/mL concentration of RG and RJ. Also, the production of the inflammatory substance nitric oxide was reduced 55% by RG and 52% by RJ at 200 μg/mL. Besides, it was confirmed that the production of reactive oxygen species, a major factor in oxidative stress, was also reduced in a dose-dependent manner. It was further confirmed that the antioxidant enzyme gene expressions such as those of Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD), Mn-SOD, glutathione peroxidase, and catalase were increased by RG and RJ extracts. In conclusion, radish has excellent antioxidant function and radish can be developed as a functional food for health in the future.Key words : radish extracts, antioxidant, functional food, LPS, RAW 264.7

  • Article l 2021-11-30

    Functional Compounds and Physiological Activities of Foxtail Millet (Setaria italica) and Finger Millet (Eleusine coracona)

    Dong-Jae Won , Koan Sik Woo, Jin Young Lee, Ji Ho Choo, Jee Yeon Ko, Byong Won Lee, Yu-Young Lee, Mihyang Kim, Moon Seok Kang, and Hyun-Joo Kim

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the physiological activities and the functional components of foxtail millet (FM, Setaria italica) and finger millet (FGM, Elusine coracana). Nine cultivars of FM (namely Keongkwan 1ho (KK1), Keongkwan 2ho (KK2), Dahwangme (DHM), Daname (DAM), Samdamae (SDM), Samdachal (SDC), Chohwangme (CHM), Hwanggeum (HG), Hwangmeechal (HMC)) and one cultivar of FGM (namely Finger1ho (FG1)) were cultivated and compared with respect to their physicochemical characteristics. The calcium content of FG1 was 11.6 times higher than the average calcium content of the FM cultivars, while the potassium and phosphorus content of the FG1 was the lowest among all cultivars at 2,582 and 2,511 ppm, respectively. The cultivar with the highest total polyphenol content was FG1 at 30.64 mg/g. The cultivars with the highest phytic acid and γ-oryzanol content were DAM (1.13 g/100 g) and HG (2.05 mg/100 g), respectively. FG1 showed the best antioxidant activities with the highest level of DPPH, ABTS radical scavenging capacities, and FRAP at 23.98 mg Trolox equivalent (TE)/g sample, 17.14 mg TE/g sample, and 216.82 mM, respectively. FG1 also showed the strongest α-glucosidase inhibition activity at 89.64%. The cultivars showing higher tyrosinase inhibition activities were DHM and CHM at 67.21% and 62.82%, respectively. From these results, it could be concluded that FG1 would be highly useful as a functional agent and a good source for nutrients such as calcium and total polyphenols.Key words : foxtail millet, finger millet, cultivars, functional compounds, physiological activity

  • Article l 2021-11-30

    Functional Components and Antioxidant Activities by Temperature and Growing Days of Sprouted Oats

    Yu-Young Lee , Yurim Son, Moon Seok Kang, Mihyang Kim, Jin Young Lee, and Hyun-Joo Kim

    In this study, the functional components and antioxidant activities of the various parts of sprouted oats were analyzed to obtain basic data for their varied end-uses in the food industry. The avenanthramide content of the sprouted oats was higher in the roots (48.48∼155.59 μg/g) and seeds (538.68∼746.29 μg/g) than in the sprouts (37.25∼113.67 μg/g). The β-glucan content was high in sprouts and roots at 15°C (sprouts, 2.41±0.12 g/100 g; roots, 1.40±0.05 g/100 g) and seeds at 24°C (1.24±0.06 g/100 g). The 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity of the sprout was highest at 185.4±3.4 mg Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC)/100 g at 24°C, while that of the root was highest at 18°C (153.60±0.00 mg TEAC/100 g) and the seed at 24°C (203.00±1.70 mg TEAC/100 g). The 2,2′-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid radical scavenging activity was highest at 18°C (472.30±6.70 mg TEAC/100 g) in the sprout. The total polyphenol content in the sprout was highest at 18°C (634.90±17.50 mg gallic acid equivalent/100 g). Based on the above results, the functional component content of sprouted oats differs depending on the cultivation conditions. Thus, it is necessary to establish appropriate cultivation conditions for oat sprouts according to the end-use.Key words : oat, sprout, functional components, antioxidant activity

  • This study evaluated the antioxidant and physiological activities of processed water (PW) generated during the preparation of red bean paste. The three types of PW were prepared by heat treatment for 35 min at 95°C (1st PW), 35 min at 95°C (2nd PW), and 20 min at 100°C (3rd PW), sequentially. The total polyphenol and flavonoid contents of the 1st PW were 92.30 mg/g and 11.54 mg/g, respectively. The polyphenol and flavonoid content of the PW decreased as the number of heat treatments increased. The 1st PW showed the highest 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity, nitrite scavenging activity, and reducing power. The antioxidant activities of PW also significantly decreased as the number of heat treatments increased. Whitening, anti-skin-aging, and anti-diabetic activities were observed in the 1st PW. Furthermore, the highest inhibitory activities of acetylcholinesterase and β-secretase were also observed in the 1st PW. These results indicate that the 1st PW of red bean paste may be useful as an antioxidant and functional substance in food and pharmaceutical products.Key words : antioxidant activity, physiological activity, by-product, processed water, red bean paste

  • Article l 2021-11-30

    Fat, Sugar, and Sodium Content in Commonly Consumed Bakery Bread in Korea

    Sohee Lee , Eunji Choi, Jeeae Aum, Sung-Won Yoon, Jo Won Lee, Hyun-Jeong Kim, In-Hwan Kim, Sam-Pin Lee, Hye-Young Kim, Jang-Hyuk Ahn, Bo Kyung Moon, Dong Won Seo, Jung-Ah Shin, Jeehye Sung, and Byung Hee Kim

    This study sought to compare the fat, sugar, and sodium content in commonly consumed bakery bread distributed in Korea and compare these to their chronic disease risk reduction intake (CDRR) values. Samples of 13 different types of bakery bread were analyzed in this study. These comprised nine types of bread considered as key foods which provide 85% of the diet intake of 17 specific nutrients (including fat, sugar, and sodium) and four types of bread that are frequently searched by consumers through internet portal sites and mobile applications. All samples were collected in Seoul during 2020. Sweet red bean butter and croissants showed relatively greater total saturated and trans fatty acid content than the others. Castella had the lowest total saturated and trans fatty acid content and sodium content per 100 g or per serving, while having the greatest total sugar content per 100 g. Whole wheat bread and plain bread tend to have a greater sodium content, but lower total sugar content as compared to the others. The total saturated and total trans fatty acids, total sugar content, and sodium content per serving in all bread were at low levels (i.e., 4.7∼74.4%, 0.5∼20.8%, 3.1∼28.3%, 1.9∼20.3%, respectively) compared to their CDRR values. The reported results can be used to update the Korean food composition database and help consumers make healthy choices in their consumption of bakery foods.Key words : bakery bread, fats, sugar, sodium, chronic disease risk reduction intake

  • Article l 2021-11-30

    Contents of Selected Vitamin B and Vitamin C in Noodles, Snacks and Breads Consumed in Korea

    Heeyoon Shin , Byung Hee Kim, Min-Hee Kim, and Younghwa Kim

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the content of water-soluble vitamins, such as vitamins B1, B2, B3, B5, B6, B7, and C in processed noodles, bread, and snacks consumed in Korea. It was observed that the highest content of vitamin B1 was 1.115 mg/100 g in tortilla, and instant udon showed the highest content of vitamin B2 (0.840 mg/100 g). The highest content in vitamin B3 was 3.928 mg/100 g in the gangnaengi, and ppeongtwigi contained the highest content of vitamin B5 (19.195 mg/100 g). Vitamin B6 was not detected in most processed noodles, bread, and snacks, with the exceptions being carbonara spaghetti, rose cream spaghetti, and crackers. Muffins showed the highest content of vitamin B7 (9.124 μg/100 g) and potato chips contained the highest levels of vitamin C (35.936 mg/100 g). In addition, the analysis method of each water-soluble vitamin was verified. These results provide reliable data on the selected vitamin B, and vitamin C content of processed noodles, bread, and snacks consumed in Korea.Key words : noodles, snacks, bread, water-soluble vitamins, method validation

  • Article l 2021-11-30

    Physicochemical Properties and Volatile Flavor Compounds of Unripe Peach Sugaring Solutions with Pectinase

    Hee-Young Hwang , Mee-Jeoung Kim, Seung-Woo Park, and Woo-Sik Jeong

    This study investigated the effects of pectinase treatment on the physicochemical properties, antioxidant capacities, and volatile flavor compounds of unripe peach sugaring solutions. Three different unripe peaches including white peach, nectarine, and yellow peach were mixed with fructooligosaccharide, and treated with or without pectinase, and stored for 5 weeks. The pectinase treatment in unripe peach sugaring solutions increased the content of soluble solids and titratable acidity while it decreased pH when compared to the non-treated sample. The content of free sugars such as fructose and glucose increased with the pectinase treatment, but maltose was not detected in all varieties. Organic acid content, citric acid, malic acid, and succinic acid were diminished, whereas tartaric acid, lactic acid, and acetic acid increased after pectinase treatment. Among the unripe peach varieties, white peach showed the highest radical scavenging activity, regardless of the pectinase treatment, in both 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and 2,2′-azinobis- 3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid assays. On the other hand, pectinase treatment caused an increase in antioxidant activity in all peach varieties. The content of phenolic compounds and flavonoids increased in all varieties following pectinase treatment. The total content of phenolic compounds was the highest in white peach, and the total flavonoid content was the highest in nectarine. In gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis, 15 volatile flavor compounds were identified including 9 aldehydes, 2 esters, 1 acid, 1 alcohol, and 2 other types. In all varieties, volatile flavor compounds increased with pectinase treatment. Taken together, it can be concluded that pectinase treatment improved overall quality characteristics of unripe peach sugaring solution.Key words : unripe peach, sugaring, pectinase, volatile flavor compound, antioxidant

  • Article l 2021-11-30

    Properties of Rice Muffin with the Addition of Chickpea Aqueous Solution Instead of Egg Whites

    Ki-Hong Yoon , Weon-Mo Kim, and Gyu-Hee Lee

    This study sought to confirm the feasibility of manufacturing rice muffins using a chickpea aqueous solution instead of egg whites. A comparison was carried out between muffins made with rice powder and egg whites (ER), muffins made with flour and egg whites (EWW), and muffins made by using various amounts of chickpea aqueous solution (CAS) as a replacement for egg whites. The results showed that in comparison with the foam-forming ability of egg whites, the foaming ability of the chickpea aqueous solution was very good when the foam was created using a whisk. The rice muffins prepared by using 80% (CAS80) and 85% (CAS85) of the egg whites with aqueous chickpea solution were similar in appearance to ER. The rheology results showed that ER had a springiness (elasticity) value between CAS85 and CAS90. There was no statistically significant difference in hardness between ER and CAS. The similarity of rice muffins made by varying the amount of chickpea aqueous solution instead of the egg whites was analyzed through the Euclidean distance between treatments by multidimensional scaling (MDS). In the MDS analysis, the R2 value for the linear fit was 0.9842, indicating a high fit for the linear analysis. The samples were classified into three classes in the position diagram of the Euclidean distance model of the MDS. The EWW group was the treatment group in class A, and the CAS90, CAS95, CAS100 groups were in class B. Class C comprised the ER, CAS80, and CAS85 groups. Thus, it was found that ER, CAS80, and CAS85 had similar characteristics. In conclusion, it is possible to prepare rice muffins by using a 80 and 85% chickpea aqueous solution instead of egg whites (CAS80 and CAS85). The muffins prepared in this manner have characteristics similar to those prepared using rice powder and egg whites.Key words : rice muffin, egg white, chickpea aqueous solution, rice flour

  • Article l 2021-11-30

    Changes in Sugar Content of Sweet Potatoes with Changes in Curing and Storage Conditions

    Hye Won Lee , Chae Young Hong, Yeon Jae Jo, Tae Yong You, Tae Whan Shin, Mi Nam Chung, Jun Soo Lee, and Heon Sang Jeong

    This study examined the effect of storage conditions on the improvement in the sugar content of processed sweet potatoes (Jeungmi variety and overseas collected species (OCS)). Total sugar, reducing sugar, and free sugar contents were high when the sweet potatoes were stored at 9°C in all the treatment methodologies used. The total sugar content of the Jeungmi variety stored at 9°C increased from 13.75∼138.42 mg/g sample on day zero to 42.30∼ 376.57 mg/g after 10 days of storage and then decreased thereafter. The reducing sugar and free sugar content also showed the same tendencies as total sugar. The sugar content in sweet potatoes after the curing and steaming treatment was higher than that of untreated sweet potatoes. Specifically, maltose was not detected before the steaming treatment, but steaming increased levels to 108.76 mg/g sample in the Jeungmi variety and 79.36 mg/g sample in the OCS. From the above results, to increase the sugar content of stored sweet potatoes, a storage temperature of 9°C and a storage period of 10 days are most appropriate, and the quality of sweet potatoes can be improved through curing after harvest.Key words : sweet potato, sugar content, curing, storage

  • Article l 2021-11-30

    Effect of Red Cabbage on the Quality and Storage Characteristics of Emulsion-Type Pork Sausage

    Ha-Yoon Go , Sol-Hee Lee , and Hack-Youn Kim

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the quality and storage characteristics of emulsion-type pork sausages containing red cabbage powder (0%, 1%, 3%, and 5%). The study examined the proximate composition, pH, color, cooking yield, viscosity, texture profile analysis, total polyphenol content (TPC), 2,2-diphenyl-l-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging, 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS), and volatile basic nitrogen (VBN) levels. The moisture content and hardness of the sausages were significantly higher with the addition of 3% and 5% red cabbage powder compared to the 0% treatment (PKey words : synthetic antioxidant, natural material, red cabbage, emulsion-type sausage

  • The quality of emulsion-type sausages is affected by the ratio of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids. Horse fat and canola oil contain mainly unsaturated fatty acids relative to other fats and oils. The main objective of this study was to produce unsaturated fatty acid enhanced emulsion-type sausages by adding horse fat and canola oil and investigating the resultant physicochemical characteristics. The horse fat (H) and canola oil (C) were added in the ratio of 20:0 (H20:C0), 15:5 (H15:C5), 12.5:7.5 (H12.5:C7.5), 10:10 (H10:C10). Sausages produced with the addition of horse fat and canola oil showed an increased, moisture content and water holding capacity. Also, cooking and fat loss increased, and water loss decreased. Volatile basic nitrogen and thiobarbituric acid reactive substance values increased because of canola oil, but the food quality was observed to be safe. An analysis of physical properties showed that hardness, springiness, gumminess, and chewiness tended to decrease as the ratio of canola oil increased. The saturated fatty acid composition comparing palmitic acid etc. in the sausages decreased, and unsaturated fatty acids such as oleic acid increased. Based on these results, we suggest that H15:C5 and H12.5:C7.5 are suitable for unsaturated fatty acid enhanced emulsion-type sausage production.Key words : emulsified sausage, horse fat, canola oil, low-fat meat products, home meal replacement

  • The study sought to investigate the matrix effect of antioxidant food ingredients on the oxidative stability of lipids in food during deep-frying and subsequent storage. Deep-fried doughnuts were prepared by replacing the wheat flour (WF) content with pistachio powder (PP) ranging from 0∼32% and the oxidation stability was evaluated by the Schaal oven test. With increasing amount of PP, the moisture content of the doughnuts decreased significantly with no change in their fat content, although PP was lower in water and much higher in fat content compared to WF. The doughnut crumbs increased in yellowness and decreased in lightness, reflecting the color properties of PP. However, their crust increased in redness with much lower lightness compared to the crumbs, presumably due to the browning reaction and the decomposition of chlorophyll under thermal processing. During storage at 63°C for up to 10 days, the hydroperoxide content and p-anisidine value tended to be higher in doughnuts with higher PP, despite the much higher total reducing capacity and DPPH radical scavenging activity of PP compared to those of WF. This could be because the doughnuts became enriched with not only antioxidants but also fat as a substrate of oxidation and chlorophyll and lutein as prooxidants, with the addition of PP. Another reason could be that low moisture foods like doughnuts do not easily form association colloids where polar antioxidants could be partitioned. These results demonstrated that the matrix of ingredients should be considered when selecting antioxidative ingredients according to the polar paradox theory to prevent lipid oxidation during cooking and preservation.Key words : pistachio, matrix, deep-frying, doughnut, polar paradox

  • This study was conducted to investigate the sanitation management performance according to the characteristics of coffee franchise shops and the sanitary knowledge of employees according to their characteristics of the employees. In 2019, an on-site survey was conducted among 60 coffee franchise shops in Korea and 302 employees at those shops. The sanitation management performance of the shops was evaluated through observations and interviews by trained experts. The sanitary knowledge of employees was surveyed using a self-recording method by distributing a questionnaire. The sanitation management performance of the shops was 47.87 points out of 55 (87.0%). The sanitation management performance of the shops was significantly higher when the shop (1) was a directly managed store, (2) had a designated a sanitary manager, (3) was located in the metropolitan area, (4) provided sanitation education to employees, (5) had no experience track record of violating the Food Sanitation Act, and (6) had a sanitary grade shop as designated by the Ministry of Food and Drug Safety. The sanitary knowledge score of employees was 10.60 points out of 15 (70.6%). The level of sanitary knowledge score of employees was higher when they were (1) performing customer service duties, (2) working eight hours or less, and (3) not having relevant licenses. There was no significant correlation between the sanitation management performance and the employees’ sanitary knowledge score. Therefore, it is postulated that the coffee franchise head office should endeavor to develop appropriate training methods based on the above factors to improve the sanitation management performance of their shops.Key words : coffee franchise shop, sanitation management performance, sanitary knowledge

  • Note l 2021-11-30

    Validation of Analytical Method and Procyanidin B2, C1 Content in Korean Apple Cultivars

    Ji Yeong Kim , Ha Na Jang, Gi Chang Kim, Hae Ju Kang, and In Guk Hwang

    Procyanidin is a major functional component of apples. This study sought to verify an analytical method to evaluate the procyanidin B2 and C1 content by varieties, parts, and farms of apples. The linearity of the method developed using ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) was excellent, and the correlation coefficients (R2) of procyanidin B2 and C1 were 0.9996 and 0.9996, respectively. The limits of detection of procyanidin B2 and C1 were 0.70 and 0.77 μg/mL and limits of quantification were 2.14 and 2.32 μg/mL, respectively. The relative standard deviation (RSD) of the intra-day and inter-day were calculated and had excellent precision and was found to be within 5%. The RSD of the recovery rate of procyanidin B2 and C1 were 0.68∼3.33% and 1.63∼2.78%, respectively. Through this, the analytical method for estimating procyanidin was confirmed. Analysis of procyanidin in the different apple varieties (Summerking, Gamhong, Hongro, Arisu, Busa), showed that Gamhong had significantly (PKey words : apple, procyanidin B2, procyanidin C1, UPLC, analytical method

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November, 2021
Vol.50 No.11

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Print ISSN 1226-3311 Online ISSN 2288-5978