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JKFN Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition



Online ISSN 2288-5978

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  • Article l 2023-01-31

    Sleep-Promoting Activity of Alcoholic Extract from Poria cocos, Longanae Arillus and Pericarpium Citri Reticulatae Viride in a Pentobarbital-Induced Sleep Model

    Chunwoong Park , Hyunkyung Kim , Yejin Ahn , Yang-Hee Hong , Sang Duck Jeon , Seok June Son , and Hyung Joo Suh

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant and sleep-promoting activities of the ethanol extracts of three medicinal plants, viz. Poria cocos, Longanae Arillus, and Pericarpium Citri Reticulatae Viride (PCRV). Polyphenol contents were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography and radical scavenging activity to evaluate their antioxidant activities. The sleep-promoting activities of extracts were evaluated using a pentobarbital-induced sleep model and a caffeine-induced insomnia model. Of the three medicinal plant extracts, PCRV extract had the highest total polyphenol content (215.44 mg/g) and exhibited excellent radical scavenging activity. Furthermore, PCRV extract contained sleep-promoting quercetin-3-glucuronide and trans-ferulic acid and promoted sleep more than the other two extracts, and at 160 or 200 mg/kg, PCRV extract also more significantly improved sleep latency (P<0.001) and duration (P<0.001). In the insomnia model, caffeine-induced increases in sleep latency and reductions in sleep duration were significantly and dose-dependently suppressed by PCRV extract. Collectively, the study shows PCRV extract effectively removes free radicals, promotes sleep, and has potential use as a functional substance for ameliorating sleep disorders.aKey words : pentobarbital-induced sleep, Poria cocos, Longanae Arillus, Pericarpium Citri Reticulatae Viride

  • Article l 2023-01-31

    In Vitro Anticancer Effects of Unitein and Deep Seawater Salt Minerals on HT-29 Human Colon Carcinoma Cells

    Kyunghwa Lee , WoonSeo Song , YeonJun Lee , Yanni Pan , Suk-Chan Hahm , and Kun-Young Park

    This study investigated the inhibitory mechanisms of Unitein (a fermented product of soybeans, red ginseng, and dried mandarin peel) and deep seawater salt minerals (DSM) on the proliferation of HT-29 cells (a human colon carcinoma cell line). An MTT assay was used to examine the effects of Unitein (Uni), unfermented Unitein (UU), and DSM on cell growth, and the mRNA expressions of genes related to the cell cycle, apoptosis, and inflammation were measured. Uni inhibited cell growth almost twice as much as UU at 1 mg/mL. DSM inhibited cell growth by 32.68±1.99% at 0.2 mg/mL, and mixtures of Uni (1 mg/mL)+2.5% DSM (UL), and Uni (1 mg/mL)+ 10% DSM (UH), inhibited growth significantly more than Uni (1 mg/mL). RT-qPCR results showed that Uni, UL, or UH significantly up-regulated the mRNA expressions of p53 and p21 (cell cycle arrest-related genes) and Bim, Bax, Bak, Bad, caspase 9, and caspase 3 (pro-apoptotic genes) and down-regulated the mRNA expressions of Bcl-2 (an anti-apoptotic gene), and NF-κB p65, NF-κB p50, and COX-2 (inflammation-related genes). The study shows Unitein and deep seawater salt minerals exert anti-cancer effects by regulating the cell cycle, apoptosis, and the expressions of inflammatory genes, and thus, inhibiting the proliferation of HT-29 cancer cells.Key words : Unitein, deep seawater salt minerals, cell cycle, apoptosis, inflammation

  • Article l 2023-01-31

    Synergistic Effects of Sorghum Extract and Metformin on Anti-Diabetic Activities in HepG2 Cells

    Minha Kim , Hyun-Joo Kim, Huijin Heo, Minju An, Mirae Hong, Heon Sang Jeong, and Junsoo Lee

    Diabetes mellitus is a complex chronic disease with various causes and pathophysiologies. Sorghum is considered a rich source of bioactive compounds and to reduce the risk of diabetes, whereas metformin (Met) can promote insulin sensitivity and facilitate glucose uptake by cells. In this study, we investigated the anti-diabetic effects of sorghum ethanol extract (SEE), Met, and their combinations (SEE-Met) by measuring glucose consumption by HepG2 cells. SEE, Met, and SEE-Met samples showed no significant cytotoxicity. Optimal synergistic effects were found at a SEE-Met ratio of 4:6 at the concentration of 10 μg/mL and 100 μM, respectively. SEE, Met, and SEE-Met 4:6 increased glucose consumption by 32%, 48%, and 77%, respectively. Synergy between SEE and Met was analyzed using a combination index (CI) model, and SEE-Met 4:6 was found to have significant synergistic effects (CIKey words : sorghum, metformin, synergistic effects, anti-diabetes, HepG2 cell

  • Article l 2023-01-31

    Chemical Composition, Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Potential in Whole, Flesh, and Peels of Codonopsis lanceolata Roots

    Ji Yeong Kim , Hee Sun Yang , HaeJu Kang , Jeong-sook Choe , and In Guk Hwang

    This study compares the chemical composition, antioxidant effect, and anti-inflammatory potential of different parts (whole, flesh, and peels) of Codonopsis lanceolata roots (CLR). Component analysis performed using liquid chromatography (LC) revealed that the contents of vitamin B2, B3, tangshenoside I, lobetyolin, lancemaside A, and total polyphenol were highest in the CLR peels. Moreover, the peels also showed the highest antioxidant activity. All components of the CLR inhibited oxidative stress and enhanced mitochondrial biogenesis in LPS-treated RAW 264.7 cells, as quantified using fluorescent probes. Results of the Griess assay and enzyme-linked immunosorb ent assay, revealed that exposure to CLR suppressed the production of nitric oxide, prostaglandin E2, and pro-inflammatory cytokines. CLR treatment also reduced the expression levels of cyclooxygenase-2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase protein through the regulation of nuclear factor-κB and mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathways, respectively, as determined by western blot. The findings of this study suggested that the CLR peels have a higher concentration of bioactive compounds than the amounts obtained in the flesh tissues of CLR. Thus, we propose that consuming CLR with the peel is more beneficial to the human body, than eating peeled.Key words : deodeok (Codonopsis lanceolata), peel, lancemaside A, inflammation, RAW 264.7 cells

  • Article l 2023-01-31

    Nutritional Compositions of Persimmon (Diospyros kaki) Cultivars Subjected to Different Processes

    Jong Hyun Moon , Han Su Lee , Uk Lee , Jong Min Kim , Hyo Lim Lee , Min Ji Kim , Hye Rin Jeong , Min Ji Go , Tae Yoon Kim , Seung Gyum Joo , Ju Hui Kim , and Ho Jin Heo

    This study was performed to analyze the nutritional components of fresh Diospyros kaki fruits of four persimmon cultivars (Bansi, Gabjubaekmok, Gojongsi, and Dungsi) processed in different ways. Fructose and glucose contents were higher in processed products than in fresh fruits. Sliced-dried persimmon had higher levels of total free sugar, palmitic acid, stearic acid, α-linolenic acid, and linoleic acid than other processed products. All Gojongsi products processed had elevated levels of unsaturated fatty acids. In the results of amino acid analysis, glutamic acid and aspartic acid were highest in cultivars. Sliced-dried persimmon had a higher essential amino acid content than other fresh fruits and processed products, and vitamin C contents were higher in all processed products than in fresh fruit. β-Carotene content was greatest for sliced-dried Gabjubaekmok. γ-Tocopherol and total tocopherol contents were higher in processed products than in fresh fruit, and sliced-dried Gabjubaekmok had a higher total tocopherol content than the other cultivars. Myricetin, 3′-hydroxy-5,6,7,8,4′-pentamethoxyflavone, 6,8-di-C-methylkaempferol 3,7-dimethyl ether, citric acid, malic acid, and gallic acid were detected as major physiologically active compounds by ultra-performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC/Q-TOF/MS).Key words : persimmon, Diospyros kaki, processed products, nutritional component, metabolites

  • The present study examined the effects of domestic cooking methods on the biotin contents of Korean foods. Immunoaffinity column cleanup extraction and high-performance liquid chromatography were used to determine biotin contents. Linearity, accuracy, and limits of detection and quantification were acceptable based on the AOAC guidelines. Among legumes, raw soybeans had the highest biotin level, but boiling legumes significantly reduced biotin contents. In contrast, roasting increased biotin contents, but blanching and steaming reduced the biotin contents of most vegetables compared to uncooked vegetables. The study provides reliable data on the biotin contents of Korean agricultural foods.Key words : biotin, agricultural foods, domestic cooking methods, HPLC, immunoaffinity-column

  • Article l 2023-01-31

    Thiamine, Riboflavin, and Niacin Contents in Vietnamese Foods

    Younghyeon Jang , Jinsoo Jeon , and Myoung-Gun Choung

    Recently, the global cognition of Southeast Asian foods has improved due to increased overseas travelers, but information on the water-soluble vitamin B contents in Vietnamese foods is lacking. Therefore, we applied HPLC to determine the thiamine, riboflavin, and niacin contents of Vietnamese rice noodle soup (pho), Vietnamese stir-fried chow mein (Mi xao), Vietnamese fried rice (Com rang), and Vietnamese spring roll (Goi cuon). We further verified the HPLC analysis by reviewing selectivity, linearity, sensitivity, precision parameters, and accuracy. In addition, the characteristics of thiamine, riboflavin, and niacin contents in Vietnamese foods were reviewed and visualized through principal component analysis (PCA), Box-whisker plot, and heatmap using Pearson correlation analysis. We concluded that the content range in Vietnamese food was 0.000∼4.008 mg/kg thiamine, 0.000∼1.317 mg/kg riboflavin, and 0.000∼22.942 mg/kg niacin. We believe that the results of this study will contribute to improving public health.Key words : Vietnamese foods, vitamin B, thiamine, riboflavin, niacin

  • Article l 2023-01-31

    Sugar and Isoflavone Contents of Traditional Korean Soybean Fermented Foods

    Jinsoo Jeon , Younghyeon Jang , and Myoung-Gun Choung

    Information on sugar and isoflavone contents of the traditional Korean soy paste, soy sauce, and red pepper paste in the various Korean districts is limited. Therefore, we determined the sugar and isoflavone contents of traditional Korean soybean fermented foods in each province: Gangwon, Gyeongnam, Gyeongbuk, Jeonnam, Jeonbuk, Chungnam, and Chungbuk. The range of total sugar contents of soy paste was 5.78∼45.43 mg/g, soy sauces 7.09∼31.44 mg/g, and red pepper pastes 86.69∼270.94 mg/g. Total isoflavone contents of soy paste ranged from 461.78 to 887.59 μg/g, soy sauce from 3.88 to 9.32 μg/g, and red pepper paste from 35.47 to 183.88 μg/g. Thus, results of the principal component analysis revealed that traditional soy paste, soy sauce, and red pepper paste were divided by sugar and isoflavone contents. Also, the glycitin contents in soybean fermented food showed a positive correlation to 6′′-O-ace-tylgenistin, and galactose contents was negatively correlated to other sugars. The characteristics of sugar and isoflavone contents in traditional Korean soybean fermented foods were also visualized and reviewed through a heatmap with cluster analysis.Key words : soybean fermented food, sugar, isoflavone

  • People consume fruit every day to prevent chronic diseases. However, contents of micronutrients such as vitamins involved in energy metabolism have not been determined for some fruits. In this study, we analyzed the B6 vitamer (pyridoxine, pyridoxal, and pyridoxamine) contents of 22 commonly consumed fruits in Korea using high-performance liquid chromatography equipped with a fluorescence detector (HPLC-FLD). Vitamin B6 levels ranged from 3.71∼198.32 μg/100 g, and passionfruit (198.32 μg/100 g) and apple mango (114.10 μg/100 g) had the highest values. Differences in the B6 vitamer contents were observed according to the degrees of ripeness and varieties of fruit, remarkably for plum, kiwi, and persimmon. HPLC-FLD showed excellent accuracy (100.0∼103.4% recoveries) and precision (repeatability <3% RSD and reproducibility 3.5∼6.7% RSD). Limits of detection and quantification showed that the technique used enabled analysis at low analyte levels. Results showed that simultaneous analysis of pyridoxine, pyridoxal, and pyridoxamine levels by HPLC-FLD provides a reliable means of determining vitamin B6 values. Furthermore, the data obtained could be used to replace missing values for trace vitamin B6 levels to the National Standard Food Composition Table and as a guide for consumers.Key words : vitamin B6, pyridoxine, pyridoxal, pyridoxamine, fruit

  • Article l 2023-01-31

    Quality Characteristics of Sausage with Added Soybean Powder

    Ho Jun Sung , Yun Jo Jung, Ji Hyeon Yu, Yeon Jae Jo, Ji Eun Kwak, Junsoo Lee, and Heon Sang Jeong

    This study evaluated the quality characteristics of sausage analogue with added soybean powder and the optimal mixing ratio. The L value, which represents sausage analogue lightness, was 50.42 for a 10 g oil addition and increased to 52.11 when 30 g oil was added, but L decreased as the amount of gluten increased. Sausage analogue hardness was 1,004.60 g for a 10 g oil addition, but 809.60 g for a 30 g addition, and hardness increased on increasing gluten and starch contents. Similar to hardness results, when the amount of oil added was increased, puncture, compression, and cutting forces decreased, but the results increased as the amount of gluten and starch increased. Sensory evaluation showed 20 g of oil, 20 g of gluten, and 15 g of starch additions had the highest scores for color, flavor, taste, texture, and overall acceptance. Summarizing, the additions of 20 g of oil, 20 g of gluten, and 15 g of starch were considered most suitable for sausage analogue production.Key words : soybean, sausage analogue, gluten, starch, quality characteristics

  • Article l 2023-01-31

    Quality Characteristics and Antioxidant Activities of Rice Cookies Prepared with Pear Peel Powder

    Jin-Kyung Nam , Ji-Young Park , Han-Byeol Jang, and Hae-Won Jang

    Due to their tangy flavor and firm texture, pear peels are generally discarded instead of consumed with the fruit. In this study, we evaluate the quality characteristics and antioxidant activity of rice cookies supplemented with the ‘Chuwhangbae’ pear variety peel powder as an alternative use for pear peels. The amounts of pear peal powder added to the cookies were approximately 0, 3, 5, and 7%. No significant differences were observed in the rice cookie densities. Cookies prepared with increasing amounts of pear peel powder content showed decreasing pH value, loss rate, and water content, and increased spread factor and hardness. Moreover, the lightness was decreased, whereas redness and yellowness increased with higher pear peel powder concentrations. The antioxidant capacities of 2,2-diphenyl- 1-picrylhydrazyl and 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) radicals increased with higher pear peel powder concentrations. The consumer preference test results showed that the sample supplemented with 5% pear peel powder had the highest scores for color, flavor, texture, and preference. Thus, considering the sensory test results, the optimal mixture ratio was determined to be 5% pear peel powder in the cookies. From a zero-waste point of view and considering the nutritional value, antioxidant properties, and consumer preference, pear peel powder can be used as an efficient resource in rice cookie production.Key words : rice cookies, pear peel powder, Chuwhangbae, quality characteristics, antioxidant activities

  • This study aimed to examine secular trends in alcohol consumption status and data-driven dietary patterns and investigate sex-specific associations between alcohol consumption status and dietary patterns in Korean men and women. The data of 43,175 adults (17,721 men and 25,454 women) aged 19 to 64 years extracted from Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys conducted between 2007 and 2018 were subjected to factor analysis, and two types of dietary patterns were identified; a “vegetable dietary pattern” and a “meat dietary pattern”. Analyses of the secular trends of these dietary patterns and alcohol consumption status revealed a significant increase in the meat dietary pattern and alcohol drinking in women (PKey words : adult, diet, vegetables, meat, alcohol drinking

  • Correction l 2023-01-31

    Corrigendum to: Evaluation of the Biological Activities of Different Parts of Dragon Fruit

    Ye-Rin Kim, Ji-Min Park, Hyeon-Jeong Lee, and Ae-Jung Kim
  • Retraction Note l 2023-01-31

    Retraction Note to: The Optimization of Extracting Myrosinase Deriving from Brassicaceae (Cruciferae)

    Jeong Hyun Kim, Kyoung-Bo Ko, Wang-Shik Lee, and Youn Chul Ryu

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January, 2023
Vol.52 No.1

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Print ISSN 1226-3311 Online ISSN 2288-5978