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JKFN Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition



Online ISSN 2288-5978

Current Issue

  • Article l 2024-06-30

    The Immune Enhancement Effect of Pinus densiflora Pollen Extract in Splenocytes and Peritoneal Macrophages Derived from Naïve BALB/c Mice

    Jun Young Kim , San Kim , Se Jeong Kim , Se hyeon Jang , Sung Ran Yoon , Jung A Ryu , Jeong Min Park , Joe Eun Son, and Sung Keun Jung

    COVID-19, SARS, and MERS were declared pandiic and are all infectious diseases caused by a virus. The innate immune systi is important for preventing such infectious diseases. Therefore, this study examined the effects of Pinus densiflora pollen extract (PDE) on improving innate immunity. Pinus densiflora pollen is a natural micronutrient reservoir rich in various amino acids, vitamins, minerals, enzymes, and flavonoids required by the body. This study used splenocytes and peritoneal macrophages derived from BALB/c mice. PDE enhanced nitric oxide production in peritoneal macrophages. PDE alleviated dexamethasone (DEX)-induced reduction of splenocyte proliferation in concanavalin A (Con A)-stimulated splenocytes. PDE alleviated the DEX-induced reduction of interleukin-6, interleukin- 1β, and tumor necrosis factor-α production in Con A-stimulated splenocytes. These results indicate that PDE can be a health-functional food material that improves immunity.Key words : Pinus densiflora pollen, dexamethasone, nitric oxide, cytokine, innate immune systi

  • Article l 2024-06-30

    Inhibitory Effect of Herb Extract-Amino Acid Mixtures on UV-Induced Photoaging in HaCaT Cell

    Ye-Lim You , Ha-Jun Byun, Minha Kim, Namgil Kang, and Hyeon-Son Choi

    This study examined the optimal ratio of herb extract to amino acids, effectively protecting skin cells from UVB-induced photoaging. The response surface methodology program suggested seven mixture ratios of herb extracts, including ginger and star anise extracts. Among them, the H7 mixture showed the highest antioxidant activity. Arginine and glutamate were added to H7, producing HA1, HA2, and HA3 mixtures to determine their effects on UV-induced photoaging. The HA3 mixture had the highest protective effect against UV-induced cell death. HA3 significantly increased the mRNA expression of collagen 1, hyaluronic acid, and matrix metalloproteinase (1/2) while reducing the activity of hyaluronic acid lyase. HA3 significantly increased the expression of skin barrier genes, including filaggrin, loricrin, and involucrin. Overall, the HA3 mixture effectively protects skin cells from UV-induced photodamage. This study suggested an optimized herb extract/amino acid mixture ratio for developing skin-protective functional foods.Key words : photoaging, HaCaT cell, herb extract, glutamic acid, arginine

  • Article l 2024-06-30

    Mubong-derived Nanovesicles Regulate Differentiation and Mineralization in Osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 Cells

    Sang-Hoon Lee , Hyun-Ju Seo , Min-Kyung Kang , Sang Suk Kim , and Young-Eun Cho

    Osteoporosis is a systemic skeletal disease in which the risk of fracture increases due to the loss of bone strength. The problem of osteoporosis in the aging population is serious. The purpose of this study was to investigate a new, potential anti-osteoporosis treatment. Osteoblast differentiation and mineralization characteristics of Mubong-derived exosome-like nanovesicles (Mb NVs) in MC3T3-E1 cells were investigated. MC3T3-E1 cells were cultured in 0, 1, 5, and 10 μg/mL Mb NVs for 3 and 7 days. It was observed that the average diameter of NVs from Mubong isolated by ultracentrifugation was 187 nm. Intracellular alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity was significantly increased in the 1 μg/mL Mb NVs-treated group. Mb NVs significantly increased the concentration of calcified nodules. Furthermore, Mb NVs significantly upregulated the expression of genes and proteins associated with osteoblast proliferation and differentiation, such as runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2) and ALP. Our results demonstrate that Mb NVs may be useful for preventing osteoporosis by stimulating osteoblast differentiation.Key words : mineralization, Mubong-derived exosome-like nanovesicles, osteoblasts, osteoporosis

  • The development of antioxidants to combat reactive oxygen species, which are responsible for aging, heart disease, atherosclerosis, and cancer, has attracted increasing interest. Synthetic antioxidants show good antioxidant activity, but there is a need to develop natural antioxidants due to stability issues. An analysis of the polyphenol and flavonoid contents of the ethanol extract and fractions of Angelica gigas showed the highest content in the ethyl acetate fraction, and the best DPPH, ABTS, and superoxide radical scavenging activities were measured. The ethyl acetate fraction increased the activity of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, SOD; catalase) in the niatode in a concentration-dependent manner and inhibited the accumulation of reactive oxygen species. In addition, the survival rate under oxidative stress conditions was significantly higher in the ethyl acetate fraction treated group, and the expression of SOD-3::green fluorescent protein was significantly higher in the transgenic CF1553 niatode. The A. gigas ethyl acetate fraction prolonged the lifespan of niatodes and increased the expression of longevity-related proteins. Therefore, the A. gigas ethyl acetate fraction has antioxidant and therapeutic potential in the prevention and treatment of age-related diseases.Key words : Angelica gigas, Caenorhabditis elegans, antioxidant, SOD, reactive oxygen species

  • Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is a reactive oxygen species. When a large amount of H2O2 accumulates beyond the capacity of cell, OH radicals are produced upon receiving an electron. These OH radicals are very toxic, can cause considerable stress, and can damage cells. On the other hand, the protective effect of Tenebrio molitor larvae extracts (TME) against oxidative damage in HaCaT cells from oxidative stress induced by H2O2 has not been proven. In this study, pretreatment of HaCaT cells with TME dionstrated a protective effect against oxidative damage induced by H2O2. This means that TME enhances the expression of antioxidant enzymes within cells, and the Bcl family proteins (Bax and Bcl-2) and the caspase pathway were inhibited by the TME treatment. It also reduced the inhibition of HO-1 expression, an antioxidant signaling pathway, and inhibited cytosolic Nrf2 and phosphorylation of the MAPK signaling pathway. These results suggest that TME can protect HaCaT cells from oxidative damage.Key words : Tenebrio molitor larvae, apoptosis, cell injury, keratinocyte, oxidative stress

  • Article l 2024-06-30

    Sensory Evaluation of Enzymatically Hydrolyzed Plant-Based Food Ingredients (Oilseed Meals, Grains, and Mushrooms): Electronic-Nose and Electronic-Tongue Analyses

    Younglan Ban , Hyeonjin Park , Hyangyeon Jeong , Sojeong Yoon , Seong Jun Hong , Hee Sung Moon , Se Young Yu , Hyun-Wook Kim, Kyeong Soo Kim, Eun Ju Jeong, and Eui-Cheol Shin

    This study analyzed the taste and volatile compounds of plant-based food ingredients with enzymatic hydrolysis. An electronic tongue was used to analyze the taste compounds, and an electronic nose was used to analyze the volatile compounds. In the trypsin-treated food ingredients, the results of the electronic tongue analysis showed that sourness and umami were the highest in dried distiller grains with solubles with trypsin (DT) and lowest in buckwheat with trypsin (BWT). The sweetness and bitterness were highest in BWT and oyster mushrooms with trypsin and the lowest in DT. In alcalase-treated food materials, the sourness was highest in rice with alcalase (RA) and barley with alcalase, with minimum values in oyster mushrooms with alcalase (OA) and soybean meal with alcalase. The sweetness and bitterness were maximum in OA, with minimum values in RA. An analysis of the flavor intensity differences using an electronic tongue showed that the type of enzyme played a more crucial role than the variety of plant-based samples. One hundred and twelve volatile compounds were detected in the trypsin-treated food materials, and 102 volatile compounds were identified in the alcalase-treated food materials. These findings are expected to provide important data for various applications of plant-based food ingredients.Key words : plant-based food ingredients, enzymatical hydrolysis, electronic nose, electronic tongue, sensory analysis

  • Article l 2024-06-30

    Physiological Activity and Nutritional Properties of Peanut Sprout Extracts

    Yoon-Kyung Lee , Young-Seon Jung , Eun-Chae Cho , Do-Hui Kim , and Kyung-Ok Shin

    This study was conducted to investigate the physiological activity and nutritional properties of peanut sprout extract and to find ways to increase its utility as a functional food. The peanut sprout extract was high in moisture, protein, calcium, selenium, and zinc. The amount of essential amino acids per 100 g of the peanut sprout extract was as follows: arginine 1,380.3 mg> leucine 1,184.4 mg> lysine 977.2 mg> valine 953.3 mg. The highest 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) radical scavenging activity in the peanut sprout extract was measured at 89.40±0.16 μmol Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity/g. The highest content of C18:3 per 100 g was measured in peanut sprout extract. Additionally, the highest trans-resveratrol content in the peanut sprout extract was 10.23 μg/g. Therefore, it is believed that the use of peanut sprout extract along with peanuts can enhance its use as a functional food.Key words : Arachis hypogaea L., mineral, amino acid, antioxidant, trans-resveratrol

  • This study examined the fermented Mentha piperita extracts obtained using various microorganisms (Bacillus subtilis, BS; Saccharomyces cerevisiae, SC; Levilactobacillus brevis, LB; Lacticaseibacillus casei, LC; Lactiplantibacillus plantarum, LP). The total polyphenol contents of the LP fermented extracts were 208.14±0.95 mg GAE/g, which showed the highest contents among the fermented extracts, but there was no significant difference from the LC fermented extracts. The total flavonoid contents of the LP fermented extracts was 109.66±1.73 mg CE/g, which showed the highest contents among the fermented extracts (P<0.05). The IC50 value of the LP fermented extracts was 0.054±0.005 mg/mL, which showed the highest DPPH radical scavenging activity comparable to ascorbic acid (P>0.05). The IC50 value of the LP fermented extracts was 0.403±0.011 mg/mL, which showed the highest ABTS radical scavenging activity among the fermented extracts (P<0.05). The FRAP value of the LP fermented extracts was 2.25±0.04 M/g, which showed the highest value among the fermented extracts (P<0.05). The EC50 value of the LP fermented extracts was 0.332±0.001 mg/mL, which showed the highest reducing power among the fermented extracts (P<0.05). The IC50 value of the LP fermented extracts was 1.695±0.043 mg/mL, which showed the highest nitrite scavenging activity among the fermented extracts, but there was no significant difference from that of the LC fermented extracts. The SC, LC, and LP fermented extracts were active against Enterobacter cloacae at 10 mg/disc concentrations.Key words : Mentha piperita, fermentation, physicochemical properties, physiological activities

  • This study examined the fermented basil obtained using various microorganisms (Bacillus subtilis, BS; Saccharomyces cerevisiae, SC; Lacticaseibacillus casei, LC; Levilactobacillus brevis, LB; Lactiplantibacillus plantarum, LP). The total polyphenol content, total flavonoid content, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging, 2,2′-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonate) radical scavenging and ferric reducing antioxidant power value of Ocimum bacilicum L. fermented products were the highest in the SC fermented products (P<0.05). The antibacterial activities of O. bacilicum L. LB, LP fermentation were better than those of non-fermented group at all concentrations (P<0.05) in all strains. The nitrite scavenging ability of all O. bacilicum L. fermented products was found to be better than the that of non-fermented group. Tyrosinase and elastase inhibition activities of O. bacilicum L. fermented products were the highest in SC fermented products. Considering the above results, fermented basil products are expected to be useful as natural ingredients for functional foods.Key words : Ocimum bacilicum L., physicochemical properties, cultural characteristics, antioxidant activities, fermentation

  • Article l 2024-06-30

    Pilot Scale Enzymatic Extraction of Functional Components of Mulberry

    Mi Jin Kim , In Guk Hwang , Ji Yeong Kim , Pureum Im , Mina Kim , Jeong-sook Choe , and Ae-jin Choi

    This study aimed to improve the water solubilization and functional components of mulberry fruit, the different extraction volumes according to the enzyme treatment, and the suitability of mass production. The enzyme treatment extracts (PM) were prepared in three volumes (0.1, 4, and 40 kg) compared with non-enzyme extraction (CON) to confirm solubilization, quality characteristics, and functional component contents. The water-soluble index (WSI) increased in the PM compared to CON. The sugar and total acidity content increased in the PM compared to CON. The total polyphenol content (TP) was higher in the PM than in CON. The changes in extraction volumes increased 1.8 times in the PM compared to CON. The total anthocyanin content (TA) had no difference in content or decreased as the extraction dose increased. The cyanidin-3-glucoside (C3G) content increased 1.1∼3.5 times in the PM compared to CON. The variability of analysis of the parameters depending on different extraction scales was confirmed to be the WSI of CON within ±3% and the error range of PM within ±2%. Furthermore, the TP, TA, and C3G contents showed an error range within ±1%. The measurements of the sugar content, total acidity content, TP, TA, and C3G content of PM during a one to twelve-week storage period were significantly higher in PM than in CON. These results confirmed the possibility of mass production that can be applied in industry and provide basic data for producing highly functional food materials.Key words : enzyme, mulberry fruits, anthocyanin, cyanidin-3-glucoside, pilot scale

  • Article l 2024-06-30

    Effects of Co-Fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Hanseniaspora uvarum Yeasts on the Volatile Aromatic Compound and Sensory Quality of Distilled Soju

    Kyu-Taek Choi , Chun-Woo Park , Su-Hyun Lee , Ye-Na Lee , Ji-Yun Oh , Jun-Su Choi , Deokyeong Choe , and Sae-Byuk Lee

    This study increased the volatile aromatic compounds in wine through the mixed fermentation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and non-Saccharomyces yeasts to make distilled soju. The expectation was to induce changes in the metabolites, such as volatile aromatic compounds, before the distillation process, followed by concentrating these compounds through distillation to enhance the odor properties of distilled soju. When alcohol fermentation was conducted using S. cerevisiae NY-21, both single and co-fermentation showed slightly higher total acidity, and the reducing sugar began to deplete more quickly than when using S. cerevisiae 11215. When Hanseniaspora uvarum yeast was used, the content of low molecular weight volatile aroma compounds increased, particularly esters. The sensory evaluation results indicated a higher odor score in distilled soju co-fermented with S. cerevisiae and H. uvarum S6, suggesting that the mixed fermentation technology using H. uvarum could help improve the quality of distilled soju in the future.Key words : volatile aromatic compound, sensory quality, distilled soju, co-fermentation, Hanseniaspora uvarum

  • This study examined the health behavior and dietary life status according to the level of interest in weight control in Korean adults. The data for 6,355 adults from the 2021 Consumption Behavior Survey for Food provided by the Korea Rural Economic Institute was analyzed. Approximately 44.7% of adults were in the high-interest group for weight control; 42.9% were in the moderate-interest group, and 12.4% were in the low-interest group. The level of interest in weight control differed significantly according to gender, age group, and residential area of adults. The normal weight was high in the high-interest group, while overweight was significantly higher in the low-interest group. All health behavior items in the high-interest group were positive compared to the moderate and the low-interest groups. Regarding the dietary life status, the high-interest group’s breakfast skipping frequency, lunch eating out frequency, regularity of meal time, and eating alone were significantly higher than other groups. In contrast, the low-interest group had a significantly higher frequency of eating at home. The interest in the food origin of the high-interest group was significantly higher than that of the moderate and low-interest groups. The current dietary satisfaction of the high-interest group and the low-interest group was significantly higher than that of the moderate-interest group. These results will help establish a database that contributes to developing weight control programs for adults considering differences in health behavior and dietary life.Key words : adult, health, food, behavior, Korea

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June 2024
Vol.53 No.6

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Print ISSN 1226-3311 Online ISSN 2288-5978