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JKFN Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition



Online ISSN 2288-5978

Current Issue

  • Article l 2022-04-30

    Yulmu Herbal Tea Reduces Hepatic Lipid Accumulation by Upregulating p-AMPK Expression in C57BL/6 Mice

    Gang Wan Yoo , Hae-Jin Park , Su-Jung Cho , Se Hui Lee , Soon-Ae Park , and Mi-Lim Kim

    The present study investigated the hepatic lipid-lowering effect of Yulmu herbal tea mediated by regulating hepatic protein expressions. C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into four groups: (1) normal (normal diet), (2) control (60% high-fat diet), (3) control+Garcinia cambogia 200 mg/kg/d (GC), (4) control+Yulmugambi water extract 200 mg/kg/d (YM200). Serum triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), and low-density lipoprotein concentrations significantly decreased in the GC and YM200 groups compared to the control group. There was also a significant reduction in the serum malondialdehyde levels in the GC and YM200 groups. The YM200 treatment significantly increased the hepatic phosphorylated-AMP-activated protein kinase (p-AMPK) expression, and inhibited the hepatic sterol regulatory element-binding protein-2 and 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase protein expressions, which are the key regulators of hepatic lipid synthesis. YM200 also significantly upregulated hepatic fatty acid oxidation proteins such as carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 and uncoupling protein 2. Therefore, hepatic TG and TC levels and lipid droplets were suppressed in the YM200 group. YM200 reduced hepatic lipid accumulation and regulated hepatic lipid-relating protein expressions mediated by upregulating the p-AMPK expression. In conclusion, YM200 may be useful for regulating hepatic lipid metabolism and hepatic steatosis.Key words : Yulmu herbal tea, p-AMPK, hepatic lipid metabolism, C57BL/6 mice

  • Article l 2022-04-30

    Hepatoprotective Effect of Artemisia capillaris Thunb Water Extract in an Animal Model of Liver Fibrosis

    Min Ju Kim , Jeong Won Choi, Se Hui Lee , Mi-Rae Shin , and Seong-Soo Roh

    This study investigated the hepatoprotective effect of Artemisia capillaris Thunb water extract (AE) in a thioacetamide (TAA)-induced liver fibrosis model using mice. The animal experiment was conducted with a normal group, a control group, a positive control group (silymarin 50 mg/kg), and an AE group (AE 200 mg/kg). Except for the normal group, hepatic fibrosis was induced by intraperitoneal administration of TAA 3 times a week for 8 weeks in the remaining groups (100 mg/kg for 1 week, 200 mg/kg for 2∼3 weeks, and 400 mg/kg for 4∼8 weeks). Moreover, the AE or silymarin was administered orally daily for 8 weeks. At the end of 8 weeks, ammonia levels and the myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity in the serum were measured. The expression of antioxidant, oxidative stress, inflammation, and fibrosis-related proteins in the liver tissue was measured by western blot test. Serum analysis revealed that the ammonia levels and MPO activity that were increased by the TAA were significantly decreased by the AE treatment. Also, treatment with AE significantly reduced the oxidative stress, increased by TAA by increasing the expression of antioxidant-related proteins in the liver tissue. Our study confirmed that the expression of inflammation and fibrosis-related proteins was significantly reduced due to the reduction of oxidative stress. In conclusion, these results suggest that AE treatment alleviates hepatic fibrosis by reducing oxidative stress through the activation of the NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) pathway.Key words : Artemisia capillaris, liver fibrosis, thioacetamide, antioxidant, oxidative stress

  • Article l 2022-04-30

    Quercetin Inhibits Adipocyte Differentiation via Matrix Metalloproteinases in 3T3-L1 Preadipocytes

    Seung Min Song , Soo Min Jung , Su Jin Choi , and Woo Kyoung Kim

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the inhibitory effects of quercetin on differentiation and angiogenesis via matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. The adipocytes were treated with quercetin (0, 5, 10, and 20 μM) for 24 h and the activation of the MMPs was induced by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) (100 ng/mL) (PMA+) for 2 h. The mRNA expression and activity of MMP-2 and MMP-9 were measured using a real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit, respectively. Oil-Red-O (ORO) staining and glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPDH) activity were measured. Also, the mRNA expressions of CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein (C/EBP) β, C/EBPα, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) γ, fatty acid-binding protein (FABP) 4, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A, and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR)-2 were measured using a real-time PCR. The mRNA expression and activity of MMP-2 and MMP-9 were significantly increased in the quercetin 0 μM (PMA+) group compared to the quercetin 0 μM (PMA?) group, and they were significantly decreased by quercetin treatment (PKey words : quercetin, adipogenesis, angiogenesis, vascular endothelial growth factor, matrix metalloproteinases

  • Article l 2022-04-30

    Sequence Analysis and Molecule Docking of Collagenase Inhibitory Peptides from the Peptic Hydrolysate of Flounder Skin

    Dong-Hwan Kim , You-An Kang , Jonghyun Ko , Yeung Joon Choi , and Sang-Keun Jin

    Bioactive peptides were isolated from the peptic hydrolysate of flounder skin using chromatographic methods, and their amino acid sequence was identified. The collagenase inhibitory ability of the hydrolysate was evaluated. Seven peptides, including Gln-Phe, Val-Ile-Cys-Glu, Arg-Gly-Glu, Val-Asp-Leu, Gly-Pro-Met, Gly-Ser-Ala- Pro-Glu, and Arg-Leu, were identified using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry. Six peptides in the range of 6 to 18 amino acid residues were identified using LC/quadrupole time-of-flight (Q-TOF) mass spectrometry. All the peptides were verified on the type I collagen α-1 chain obtained from the Bastard halibut of Unitprot (www.uniprot.org) (code number: Q5NT96). Analysis of the seven peptides from the MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry was carried out using in silico simulation tools, and four peptides were further assessed for their potential collagenase inhibitory activities. The amino acid sequence of Val-Ile-Cys-Glu showed the highest GOLD score of 83.9 in in silico molecular docking and inhibited the collagenase activity up to 83% compared to control. Gly-Pro-Hyp, a quality index for the product, was also verified by the high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method and measured 156 μg/g in the hydrolysate. These results suggest that the peptic hydrolysate from flounder skin contains small peptides with high collagenase inhibitory activity. This hydrolysate may find application as a food material or as an ingredient in skin products with an anti-wrinkle function.Key words : flounder skin, peptic hydrolysate, small peptide, collagenase inhibitor, molecular docking

  • The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of different cooking methods (roasting, steaming, and super-heated steaming) on the contents and true retention of vitamin and bioactive compounds in peppers (bell pepper, paprika, pepper) of various colors (orange, red, green). On the color scale, delta E was obviously different between raw and cooked peppers. The highest true retention of vitamin B1 was observed in raw red bell pepper (111.82%) and the highest level of vitamin B2 was found in the steamed orange paprika (119.72%). Super-heated steaming resulted in higher true retention of vitamin B3 and vitamin C compared to other cooking methods in all the peppers. The highest true retention of β-carotene was 168.28% in green bell pepper subjected to super-heated steaming. The total polyphenol content was higher in the raw compared to the cooked peppers. The ABTS and DPPH radical scavenging activities were higher in the red cultivar pepper compared to the peppers of other colors. These results showed that super-heated steaming causes positive changes in the nutritional and functional components of peppers. This also confirms that there are content and retention changes of bioactive compounds in peppers due to the variations in the cooking methods used.Key words : peppers, domestic cooking methods, bioactive compound, true retention

  • Article l 2022-04-30

    Changes in Morphology, Total Polyphenols, Caffeine, and Chlorogenic Acid in Beans of Arabica Coffee (Coffea arabica) during Roasting

    Seolah Kim , Sun Woo Chung , Hyun Joo An , Chan Kyu Lim , Mi Kyoung Jeon , and Yeon Jin Jang

    Coffee comprises of numerous bioactive compounds, and has recently been cultivated in temperate regions. We investigated the morphological and phytochemical changes in beans of Coffea arabica cvs. Catuai, Caturra, and Geisha cultivated in the Republic of Korea, at three roasting stages: green bean, 1st crack, and 2nd crack. Morphological changes were estimated by considering the size parameters and weights. Total polyphenols were determined using spectrophotometry, and caffeine and chlorogenic acid were quantified using high-performance liquid chromatography with the appropriate standards. Increased volume and decreased weight were observed in the beans of all three cultivars after roasting. The content of total polyphenols was about 13.74 mg gallic acid equivalent/g dry weight. The analysis of variance revealed that the contents of total polyphenols was insignificant among the cultivars and there was no significant change in the roasting stages. Compared to green bean, decreased contents of caffeine were obtained in the 1st crack and 2nd crack of ‘Catuai’. Chlorogenic acid contents were dramatically decreased in the 1st and 2nd crack of all three cultivars, as compared to green bean. Among the cultivars, ‘Geisha’ showed maximum decrease in chlorogenic acid (about 96%, 1.87 mg/mL) at 2nd crack, compared to the green bean (44.72 mg/mL). These results provide information about the characteristics of various coffee cultivars grown in the Republic of Korea during roasting.Key words : Catuai, Caturra, Geisha, coffee bean, phytochemicals

  • This study was conducted to investigate the quality characteristics and antioxidant activity of brown rice porridge supplemented with 3∼9% Jerusalem artichoke powder based on the total weight of the brown rice. The moisture content of the porridge prepared by varying the weight of the Jerusalem artichoke powder between 3 to 9% was 83.31 to 84.56%. This was not significantly different compared to the control group. The ash, crude fat, and crude protein contents did not show any difference with varying Jerusalem artichoke powder content. The sugar content increased, but the pH and viscosity of the porridge decreased in proportion to the amount of the Jerusalem artichoke powder added. Also, the brightness decreased in proportion to the amount of Jerusalem artichoke powder added, and the redness and yellowness increased. The Jerusalem artichoke powder showed higher antioxidant levels and activity than brown rice. The total polyphenol and total flavonoid contents of the porridge increased with increasing concentrations of Jerusalem artichoke powder. The antioxidant activity measured by the DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activities and reducing powder was significantly higher in the porridge with Jerusalem artichoke powder than in the control, and this activity proportionally increased as the amount of Jerusalem artichoke powder increased. These results suggest that it would be advantageous to add Jerusalem artichoke powder when making brown rice porridge.Key words : antioxidant activity, brown rice porridge, Jerusalem artichoke powder, quality characteristics

  • The influence of heat-moisture treated corn, potato, and sweet potato starches on the quality characteristics of starch noodles (dangmyeon) was investigated. The corn, potato, and sweet potato starches with 21% and 27% moisture levels were thermally treated at 100°C for 2 and 12 h. The viscosity profiles of the starches changed significantly with the heat-moisture treatment (HMT). The HMT starches had higher pasting temperature and lower pasting viscosity than the corresponding native starches. However, the HMT potato and sweet potato starches showed a higher trough and final viscosity compared to their corresponding native starches. The cooking loss rate of dangmyeon made with HMT starches was lower than that of native starches. The HMT starch noodles had higher firmness and lower stickiness than noodle made from native starches. These results confirmed that the cooking characteristics and texture properties of dangmyeon were affected by HMT of starches.Key words : dangmyeon, heat-moisture treatment, corn starch, potato starch, sweet potato starch

  • Article l 2022-04-30

    A Survey on the Hardness and Viscosity of Senior-Friendly Foods Available in the Japanese Market

    Yun Jeong Kim , In Young Lee, Yong Gi Chun, Min Hyeock Lee, and Bum-Keun Kim

    This study investigates the physical properties of senior-friendly foods marketed in Japan, certified by the universal design food (UDF), by applying the method specified in the Korean Industrial Standards (KS). Hardness measured using a Ø20 mm probe revealed that all samples satisfied the UDF grade criteria presented on the product. The hardness measured with the Ø3 mm and Ø5 mm probes for the solids contained in the product was higher than the values obtained with the Ø20 mm probe. Accordingly, classification based on the KS grade resulted in some samples being classified differently from the UDF grade. In addition, the relative standard deviations of the UDF fourth-graded samples were lower than values of other graded samples, indicating the homogeneous matrix of the UDF fourth-graded samples. Finally, the viscosity of UDF third- and fourth-graded samples was 1,500 mPa·s or more, which satisfied the UDF grades 3rd, 4th, and KS grade 3rd. However, due to the presence of solid particles with high values of hardness, some UDF third-graded samples were classified as KS first-grade. Therefore, elderly subjects with chewing and swallowing disorders need to show caution when consuming these imported foods. This study was intended to enhance the understanding of standards related to the physical properties of senior-friendly foods marketed in Korea and Japan, and to use the results as basic data for the development of senior-friendly foods that meet the KS standards.Key words : senior-friendly food, universal design food, texture, hardness, viscosity

  • Article l 2022-04-30

    Quality Characteristics of Plant-Based Proteins Used in Meat Analogs

    Sun Young Cho and Gi-Hyung Ryu

    This study aims to investigate the physicochemical and functional properties of promising plant-based proteins used for meat analogs processing. The plant-based proteins were isolated soy protein (ISP), gluten, pea proteins (Pea 1, 2) which are the different manufacturers, and isolated rice proteins (Rice 1, 2), and mung bean protein. The highest water absorption capacity (WAC) and oil absorption capacity (OAC) were observed in and pea protein (Pea 1), while the lowest WAC and OAC were seen in rice protein (Rice 2). Pea 1 had the highest emulsifying activity (EA) and emulsion stability (ES), whereas Rice 2 indicated in the lowest EA and ES. The highest nitrogen solubility index (NSI) was seen in ISP, while Rice 2 had the lowest NSI. Pea 1 had the higher NSI compare with Pea 2. Mung bean protein had the highest the antioxidant properties with DPPH radical scavenging activity and total phenolic content among the plant-based proteins. Pea 2 also had the higher antioxidant properties than Pea 1. Our study revealed that the kinds of plant-based proteins had the different physicochemical and functional properties, which could influence their quality characteristics of raw materials for meat analogs.Key words : plant-based protein, meat analog, isolated mung bean protein, isolated rice protein

  • Article l 2022-04-30

    Quality Characteristics of Super Sweet Corn (Zea mays saccharata Sturt.) Jam, Based on the Addition of Varying Amounts of Sucrose

    Sang-Beom Park , Woo-Hyeon Park , Seung-Hyeon Cha , In-Beom Han , Se-Lim Bak , Yoon-Sup So, Tae Kyung Hyun, Shin-Young Lee, and Keum-Il Jang

    Super sweet corn has a high sugar content as this is not converted to starch during storage due to the shrunken-2 gene, which inhibits the activation of ADP?glucose pyrophosphorylase. However, the quality of super sweet corn deteriorates during long-term storage because of the hardening of the peels, damage due to pests, and the fact that disease organisms are attracted by the high sugar content. To avoid quality loss during storage, super sweet corn can be stored as jam. We prepared two types of super sweet corn jam, one with sucrose (SCJS) and the other one with sucrose and butter (SCJSB), and analyzed their proximate composition, quality, and sensory characteristics. With an increase in the amount of sucrose added during preparation, the required heating time, total acidity, viscosity, a-value, b-value, texture, and contents of protein, fat, and carbohydrate decreased, while the moisture content, pH, yield, L-value, and spreadability increased. The moisture and carbohydrate contents of SCJS and SCJSB were similar. However, the protein and fat contents were higher in SCJSB, and ash content was higher in SCJS. Most quality characteristics of the two types of jam were similar, but the texture was observed to be better in SCJS. In terms of sensory characteristics, SCJSB was preferred over SCJS, and in particular, SCJSB40 prepared with 40% (w/w) sucrose based on super sweet corn extracts received the highest preference. In conclusion, we confirmed that super sweet corn can be processed into jam, thus improving its storage characteristics, and the present results could be used as a basis for the industrial production of super sweet corn jam.Key words : super sweet corn, jam, sucrose, butter, quality characteristics

  • Note l 2022-04-30

    Comparison of Antioxidant Activities in Agastache Species

    Huijin Heo , Hye-Ran Shin, Jong-Wook Chung , and Junsoo Lee

    The Agastache species, members of the mint family (Labiatae), are native to Korea, India, China, and the USA and known to have significant amounts of phenolics and flavonoids such as tilianin, acacetin, agastachin, and rosmarinic acid. This plant species has proven antioxidant, antibacterial, antimicrobial, anti-aging, anti-inflammatory, and anti-cancer activities. The objective of this study was to investigate the variation in the antioxidant activities of 12 accessions between three different Agastache species (A. foeniculum, A. rugosa, and A. urticifolia). The antioxidant activities were measured by DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activities. The relative antioxidant capacity index (RACI) was calculated to integrate different chemical methods of determining antioxidant activities and contents. A. urticifolia showed the highest (0.86) and A. rugosa the lowest (-1.49) RACI among the three species. The Pearson’s correlation coefficients indicated that there were significant positive correlations between the antioxidant activities and total polyphenolic content. Hierarchical cluster analysis classified 12 accessions into three groups based on the antioxidant properties. This study provides insights into the variation in the antioxidant activities and content profiles between the Agastache species. The antioxidant properties of the three Agastache species observed from these results provide information for the development of these species as valuable functional foods and novel dietary ingredients.Key words : Agastache species, Korea mint, antioxidant activity, cluster analysis

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April, 2022
Vol.51 No.4

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Print ISSN 1226-3311 Online ISSN 2288-5978