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JKFN Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition



Online ISSN 2288-5978

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  • Article l 2021-02-28

    Photo-Protective Effect of AP Collagen Peptides on UV-Induced Skin Aging

    Ji-Hae Lee , Minjung Chae, Jin Kyu Choi, Wangi Kim, and Miyoung Park

    Extrinsic factors including chronic ultraviolet (UV) radiation, smoking, and other pollutants may cause skin damage and aging. Oral supplementation of collagen, a major component in the skin dermis can have a photo-protective effect and help improve skin conditions. This study examined the effects of AP collagen peptides (APCP) containing glycine-proline-hydroxyproline (GPH) on UVB radiation in both human skin fibroblast and SKH-1 hairless mice. In UVB-irradiated fibroblast, APCP and GPH improved collagen type I and transforming growth factor-β1 gene expression in a dose-dependent manner. To evaluate the effects of APCP on skin photo-aging in vivo, hairless mice were exposed to UVB irradiation and administered APCP orally for 12 weeks. In the APCP-treated group, the mouse skin showed improved wrinkle indices (total wrinkle area, number of wrinkles, total length of wrinkles and mean foam factor) and histopathological changes (collagen and elastic fiber, and epidermal and dermal thickness) with a better skin barrier status (transepidermal water loss, subcutaneous hydration) and elasticity (gross elasticity, net elasticity, a portion of the visco-elasticity, and a portion of the elasticity) compared to the mouse skin of the control group. These results suggest that APCP is a potent candidate for an anti-photoaging ingredient.Key words :

  • Article l 2021-05-31

    In Vivo Toxicity Study of Freeze-Dried Skimmed Powder of Zophobas atratus Larvae (frpfdZAL), a Novel Food Source

    Sun Young Kim , Kyu-Won Kwak , Gun Kang, Yun-Shik Oh, Hyung Joo Yoon, Yong-Soon Kim, Kwanho Park, Eunsun Kim, and Sun-Don Kim

    Zophobas atratus (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), the giant mealworm beetle, has been recognized as an edible insect with a high protein content for new human food source and animal feed. On the other hand, the potential toxicity and food safety of Z. atratus is not well understood. Therefore, this study evaluated the toxicity of freeze-dried skimmed powder of Z. atratus larvae (frpfdZAL), known as the super mealworm, using different model approaches, including acute oral toxicity studies in SD rats and Beagle dogs and skin sensitization in Hartley guinea pigs (Buehler’s method) in accordance with the OECD guidelines and the principles of Good Laboratory Practice. No toxicological changes were observed in the clinical signs, body weights, and gross findings in acute single-dose administration in SD rats and Beagle dogs. In addition, skin sensitization rate was 0%, and its sensitization potential was classified as grade I (very weak) using Buehler’s method. In conclusion, frpfdZAL is safe with no adverse effects and can be applied as an edible ingredient for animal feed or used for other biological purposes.Key words :

  • Article l 2021-05-31

    The Efficacy of AP Collagen Peptides Intake on Skin Wrinkle, Elasticity, and Hydration Improvement

    Kyoungmi Jung , Mi-Suk Yang, Seung Hun Kim, Jonghwa Roh, and Wangi Kim

    Collagen is a component of the human body, known to have a beneficial effect on human health when consumed as a food or dietary ingredient. This double-blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of AP collagen peptides (APCP) containing 3% glycine-proline-hydroxyproline, on improving skin wrinkles, elasticity and hydration. Totally, 105 subjects with crow’s-feet wrinkles were randomly assigned to receive either placebo, APCP 1,000 mg or APCP 1,500 mg, once daily for 12 weeks. Efficacy endpoints of skin wrinkles, elasticity and hydration were measured at baseline, 6 and 12 weeks, and at the 2-week follow-up visit. Compared to the placebo group, the visual evaluations and R3 (average roughness) values of crow’s-feet wrinkles were significantly decreased in both APCP groups at 12 weeks, and these effects were maintained until 2 weeks after completion of ingestion. During the intake period at 6 and 12 weeks, three parameters for skin elasticity (R2, R5, R7) showed significant improvement in both APCP groups, as compared to the placebo group. The APCP groups also showed a statistically significant difference in skin hydration compared to the placebo group, at 12 weeks and at 2 weeks after the end of intake. No adverse effects were encountered during the study period. These results indicate that APCP 1,000 mg and 1,500 mg can be used as a functional food ingredient to improve human skin conditions related to skin aging and hydration.Key words :

  • Article l 2021-03-31

    Synergistic Effect of Improving Skin Hydration by Administration of Milk Ceramide and Low Molecular Fish Collagen Complex

    Hye-Jeong See , Yoon Seok Kim, Seok Jun Park, Jin Oh Yang, Sinai Lee, and Hye-Jin Kim

    The milk-derived milk ceramide (MC) and low molecular fish collagen (LFC) are materials that are effective in skin hydration and elasticity, and are widely used as skin functional ingredients. This study undertook a clinical trial to evaluate the synergistic effects of MC and LFC complex on skin hydration and elasticity. Participants (n=21) were randomly assigned to receive either MC, LFC, or a complex of MC and LFC, twice a day for 4 weeks. Skin hydration, transepidermal water loss (TEWL), elasticity and dermis density were assessed before and after the 4 weeks administration. Compared to the MC and LFC groups, skin hydration and TEWL were significantly improved (P<0.05) in the MC+LFC group after 4 weeks. Both skin elasticity and dermis density also showed improvement in the MC+LFC group after 4 weeks, but was not significantly different. Taken together, these results indicate that the mixture of MC and LFC exerts a synergistic effect in improving human skin hydration, as compared to MC and LFC administration individually.Key words :

  • This study examined the general characteristics and nutritional status by oral health among the Korean elderly. The data from the 2015 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) were used. The subjects were 1,352 old adults aged 65 years old and older. The oral health indicators were classified after completing a questionnaire asking about the experiences of toothache within the recent year, self-perception of oral health, chewing difficulty, and speaking difficulty. The group with poor self-perception of oral health had lower household income. The group with chewing difficulty showed older age, lower education status, and lower household income. The group with speaking difficulty showed older age, lower education status, lower household income, and higher current smoking. The group with speaking difficulty showed lower intakes of nuts and seeds and mushrooms. The group with chewing difficulty had a lower riboflavin intake than those without chewing difficulty. The group with speaking difficulty showed a lower intake of dietary fiber than those without speaking difficulty. Compared to the Korean Dietary Reference Intakes (KDRIs), the group with chewing difficulty showed a higher proportion of insufficiency in riboflavin intake than those without chewing difficulty. The group with speaking difficulty showed a higher proportion of insufficiency in iron intake than those without speaking difficulty. These findings showed that the elderly with chewing and speaking difficulties have a low nutritional status in some nutrients. Therefore, nutritional intervention and oral health care are necessary.Key words :

  • This study was undertaken to establish an analytical method using RP-HPLC for standard determination of cynaroside in the leaves extract of domestic Anthriscus sylvestris (L.) Hoffm., as a functional ingredient. The analytical method of cynaroside was optimized by HPLC on a reversed-phase octadecyl-silica (ODS) column with a gradient elution of 0.1% (v/v) trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) and methanol at 40°C and flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. The analyte was detected at 345 nm. The specificity was confirmed by the chromatogram obtained from the HPLC analytical method, as well as the results of UV and ESI-TOF mass spectra, and the coefficient of correlation (R>sup>2) obtained was 0.9999, which confirmed this as a suitable analysis with high linearity. The limit of detection (LOD) was 0.26 mg/L, and limit of quantitation (LOQ) was 0.78 mg/L, which was confirmed as a suitable limit level for the analysis of cynaroside content in the Anthriscus sylvestris (L.) Hoffm. leaves extract. The recovery was determined to be 98.55±0.81∼102.53±1.11%, and the relative standard deviation (RSD) was 0.25∼1.09%, indicating high accuracy. The intra-day repeatability and the intra-laboratory precision of the daily repetition were confirmed to be 0.86∼0.91% and 0.81∼1.47%, respectively, for the RSD. These results validate the established HPLC analytical method, by confirming the specificity, linearity, precision, and accuracy to be within the ICH guideline.Key words :

  • Note l 2021-06-30

    Changes in Microbial Community by Salt Content in Kimchi during Fermentation

    Geun-Hye Hong , So-Young Lee, Eui-Seong Park, and Kun-Young Park

    This study examined for changes in the microbial population during kimchi fermentation by different salt content. Kimchi was prepared with varying salt contents, including 1.5% (1.5kimchi), 2.5% (2.5kimchi), and 3.5% (3.5kimchi), and subsequently subjected to fermentation without starters at 5°C for 4 weeks. The pH and acidity of the kimchi were determined during the fermentation. Decreasing salt concentration, resulted in rapid decrease in the pH and associated increase in acidity. The 2.5kimchi showed the best qualities of kimchi. Changes in the microbial community at the phylum, genus, and species levels of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were determined at the 3rd week of fermentation, by applying the 16s rRNA of NGS (next generation sequencing). High levels of the phylum Firmicutes were obtained in all three kimchi preparations (89.8%, 96.1%, and 75.0% in 1.5, 2.5, and 3.5kimchi, respectively). The highest levels of the heterofermentative LAB Leuconostoc and Weissella were found in 2.5kimchi, and lowest levels were detected in 3.5kimchi. The dominant species obtained in the 2.5kimchi were Leu. gelidum and Wei. koreensis, and higher levels of Lab. sakei were found in the kimchi samples (46.5%∼50.5%). Notably, the 3.5kimchi contained 22% Aer. funiformesms, which is not LAB. These results indicate that 2.5% salt content is the optimal salt concentration for kimchi fermentation.Key words :

  • Article l 2021-02-28

    Inhibitory Effects of Zingiber officinale Roscoe Roots, Stems, and Leaves on Oxidative Stress through Free Radical Scavenging Activity

    Pu Reum Im , Hye-Jeong Hwang, Jeong Yeon Im, Yu-Jin Hwang, Dong-Geon Nam, Jeong-Sook Choe, and Kyung-A Hwang

    In this study, the antioxidant effects of Zingiber officinale Roscoe leaves and stems which have been registered as new food ingredients were comparatively analyzed with Z. officinale Rosc. roots. The increase in antioxidant activity was concentration-dependent in all extracts, and excellent antioxidant activity was confirmed in the roots (58%) and leaves (35%) at 100 μg/mL. The inhibitory effect of nitric oxide production was found in all samples. In particular, the leaves showed an inhibitory rate of 25∼31%, an effect similar to that of the roots (22∼37%), confirming their excellent efficacy. The stems showed a 24∼26% inhibition rate, but the inhibition was not concentration- dependent. The inhibitory effect of the roots, stems and leaves of Z. officinale Rosc. on the reactive oxygen species production was highest in the roots (21∼46%), followed by leaves (15∼30%) and stems (2∼11%). Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD) and Mn-SOD mRNA expressions were increased to high levels by the leaves. Glutathione peroxidase and catalase levels were in the increased in the roots, leaves, and stems, in that order. Through the results of this study, the antioxidant effects of Z. officinale Rosc. leaves and stems were confirmed, and excellent antioxidant activity was confirmed in the leaves. Z. officinale Rosc. leaves can therefore be considered for use as an antioxidant functional health food material in the future. However, since studies on the leaves are insufficient, additional studies in animals are needed to investigate the mechanism of the physiological activity of Z. officinale Rosc. leaves in the body.Key words :

  • This study was undertaken to confirm the antioxidant effects (electron donating ability (EDA) and ABTS radical scavenging ability) of the water (HSW) and ethanol (HSE) extracts of Hydrangea serrata Seringe on the inhibition of nitric oxide (NO), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and mitogen activating protein kinase (MAPK) phosphorylation, in LPS-induced RAW 264.7 cells. Results of the EDA test reveal that at 500 μg/mL, HSW demonstrates a good DPPH radical scavenging ability greater than 81.71%, whereas HSE demonstrates a scavenging ability greater than 89.56%. Evaluating the scavenging activity of ABTS radicals revealed that at 500 μg/mL, both HSW and HSE show superior scavenging activities of 99.4% and 96.1%, respectively. Determining the anti-inflammatory response showed that exposure to both HSW and HSE reduces the NO production in LPS-induced RAW 264.7 cells in a concentration-dependent manner, as compared to the group treated only with LPS. Moreover, exposure to both HSW and HSE resulted in a concentration-dependent inhibition of iNOS and COX-2 protein expressions. It was further confirmed that phosphorylation in the signaling pathway of MAPK was also significantly inhibited in a concentration-dependent manner. Since inhibition of MAPK phosphorylation inhibits iNOS and COX-2, which subsequently induces the expression of NO, our results indicate that extracts of Hydrangea serrata Seringe inhibit and regulate the production of inflammation-related factors. There are few reports on the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of Hydrangea serrata Seringe extracts. Therefore, considering the data obtained in the current study, we propose that Hydrangea serrata Seringe extracts have the potential to be used as useful anti-inflammatory materials in foods and cosmetics.Key words :

  • Article l 2021-04-30

    Comparison of Chemical, Mineral and Vitamin Composition of Primal and Retail Cuts of 1+ Grade Hanwoo Steer Beef

    Soohyun Cho , Yongmin Choi, Kuk-Hwan Seol, Sun Moon Kang, Hoa Ban Va, Yoon-Seok Kim, Jin-Hyoung Kim, Pil-Nam Seong, Sung-Sil Moon, and Hyun-Woo Seo

    The objective of this study was to compare the nutritional composition (e.g., calories, vitamins, and minerals) of 10 primal cuts and 37 retail cuts of 1+ grade Hanwoo beef. Out of 10 primal cuts, loin, striploin, brisket, and rib cuts had the highest energy (288.17∼336.41 kcal) and fat (23.61∼29.36%) content. Significantly lower and higher protein content was found in the ribs (16.05%) and top round (22.14%), respectively, compared to the other cuts in the 10 primal cuts studied. An analysis of the retail cuts in each primal cut showed that the chuck flap had significantly higher energy, fat, and cholesterol than the loin cut. While studying the top round and bottom round cuts, no significant variations were observed among the retail cuts in terms of the energy and cholesterol content but higher protein content was found in the rump (21.82%) and the outside round (21.50%) and higher fat content in the outside round head (13.81%) and the tri-tip (13.74%). In the rib cuts, the neck chain was higher in protein (21.13%) and lower in fat and cholesterol than the other retail cuts. Among the primal cuts studied, the top round (top inside round, 2.64 mg), bottom round (rump, 2.87; outside round head, 2.75; knuckle, 2.86 mg) and ribs (hanging tender, 3.38; outside skirt, 3.25 mg) had significantly higher iron content than the other retail cuts in the same primal cuts. A study of the vitamin content showed that the highest thiamin, riboflavin, and pantothenic acid levels were found in the bottom round (0.062 mg), tenderloin (0.231 mg), and shank (2.89 mg) among 10 primal cuts, respectively. These results would be helpful in selecting retail cuts of Hanwoo beef based on nutritional information.Key words :

  • Article l 2021-02-28

    Effect of Extraction Methods on the Quality of Pomegranate Juice and Physiological Activity

    Hee Sook Kim , Ka-Yoon Oh, Song Min Lee, Ji-Youn Kim, Sang-Hyeon Lee, Jeong Su Jang , and Mun Hyon Lee

    This study aimed to compare the quality characteristics of pomegranate juice based on the extraction methods applied: centrifugal, single-gear, and twin-gear. Changes in the metabolic activities during digestion condition were further investigated. The twin-gear method was eventually identified as the optimal method, through comprehensive evaluation of the extraction rate, particle size, proximate composition, and the mineral and vitamin contents. Pomegranate juice derived using the twin-gear method had high-levels of bioactive substances such as phenolic compounds, flavonoids, anthocyanins, and selenium. Consequently, this juice exerted significant inhibitory effects on lipid peroxidation. Phenolic compounds are known to exhibit a high-correlation with skin-lightening, anti-aging, and anti-diabetic activities. An in vitro digestion model was used to evaluate changes in the antioxidant and angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activities. Compared to levels observed before digestion, the results revealed a marked increase in the 2,2′- azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) radical scavenging, ferric reducing antioxidant power, and superoxide dismutase-like activities as digestion progressed through the gastric phase condition, whereas most of these effects were stabilized or inhibited as digestion progressed through the intestinal phase. The ACE inhibitory activity was observed to increase after being subjected to gastric and intestinal digestion conditions. The correlation coefficients (r2) for ACE inhibition and antioxidant activities were in the range 0.681∼0.952, thus indicating a highly positive correlation. The findings of this study indicate that the bioactivity of pomegranate juice is enhanced, as determined by the increase in various physiological activities as well as increase in the bioaccessibility and bioavailability of bioactive substances during digestion.Key words :

  • Article l 2021-03-31

    Optimization of Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction for Triterpene Compounds from Centella asiatica Using Response Surface Methodology

    Eunjeong Seong , Huijin Heo, Sewon Oh, Daeil Kim, Keum-Il Jang, and Junsoo Lee

    Centella asiatica is a psychoactive medicinal plant belonging to the Apiaceae family. The major bioactive compounds of Centella asiatica are triterpene saponins, including madecassoside, asiaticoside, madecassic acid, and asiatic acid. This study aimed to optimize the ultrasound-assisted extraction conditions to extract triterpenes from Centella asiatica using response surface methodology. A Box-Behnken design was employed to develop the following three extracting parameters, methanol concentration (X1: 60∼100%), extraction time (X2: 10∼50 min), and ultrasonic power (X3: 150∼250 W). The optimal extraction conditions of madecassoside (83.14 mg/g dry weight) and asiaticoside (19.71 mg/g dry weight) were obtained at X1=80%, X2=30 min, and X3=200 W. The predicted values from the model matched well with the experimental results obtained using the optimal extraction conditions. The coefficients of variation for the inter-day and intra-day precisions were less than 5%. The limits of detection for madecassoside, asiaticoside, madecassic acid, and asiatic acid were 0.32, 0.71, 0.09, and 0.15 μg/mL, respectively. These results indicate that the validation parameters were generally reliable and satisfactory.Key words :

  • The study examined the quality properties and antioxidant activities of stick jelly replaced with 0, 25, 50, and 100% tomato juice instead of water. The moisture content of the stick jelly was 88.58∼93.83%, which showed the highest moisture content in the jelly without the addition of tomato juice. The addition of tomato juice showed a tendency to decrease the moisture content compared to the control group. The crude fat and ash contents increased with increasing amount of tomato juice. The soluble solid content and hardness of jelly increased with increasing content of tomato juice added to the jelly, and the pH tended to decrease. Regarding the chromaticity, the L* value decreased with increasing level of tomato juice, and the a* value increased. The total polyphenol and total flavonoid contents increased with increasing levels of tomato juice. The antioxidant activity measured by the DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activities and reducing powder were significantly higher than the control and increased with increasing amount of tomato juice. These results suggest that tomato juice can be applied to make jelly.Key words :

  • Article l 2021-04-30

    Protective Effects of the Methanol Extract from Calyx of Diospyros kaki on Alcohol-Induced Liver Injury

    Seonghwa Hong , Huijin Heo, Hana Lee, Mina Lee, Junsoo Lee, and Jeong Hwan Park

    In this study, the calyx of Diospyros kaki was evaluated for antioxidative activity using HepG2 cells treated with alcohol-induced oxidative stress and quantitatively analyzed for phenolic acids and flavonoid concentration by LC-MS/MS. The extract of the calyx of Diospyros kaki showed no significant toxicity to HepG2 cells till a concentration of 10 μg/mL was reached and displayed increased cell viability compared to the 3% ethanol-treated group. The extract inhibited the production of reactive oxygen species at all concentrations. Besides, the extract inhibited malondialdehyde production at all concentrations and the inhibitory effect was higher than the positive control (esculetin 100 μM). Also, the extract increased the concentration of glutathione. The major phenolic acids and flavonoid in the extract were vanillic acid (729.01±42.48 μg/g) and catechin (1,894.89±105.10 μg/g), respectively. This study shows that the calyx of Diospyros kaki can be used as a functional material that exhibits antioxidative and hepatoprotective effects.Key words :

  • Article l 2021-03-31

    Ginsenoside Conversion and Anti-Inflammatory Effect on RAW 264.7 Cells of Ginseng Extract Vinegar

    Kyung Eun Moon , Hyeon Hwa Oh, Do Youn Jeong, and Young-Soo Kim

    Ginseng liqueur (GL) was prepared by adding 9% alcohol to 2% ginseng extract, and was fermented using the selected Acetobacter pasteurianus JBA190503 strain. To another GL, 10% of the seed culture was added and incubated in a shaking incubator at 30°C and 120 rpm for 25 days. The ginsenoside contents of Rg3 and Rg5 in the ginseng extract vinegar (GV) were 55.58 μg/mL and 28.52 μg/mL, respectively, which were more than four times that of GL. The changes in the ginsenoside contents and physicochemical properties (soluble sugar content, pH, total acidity, and organic acid) of the ginseng extract were evaluated during the acetic acid fermentation period. On the 10th day of fermentation, the total acidity increased to 4.10% and reached 6.41% on the 25th day. Acetic acid was identified as a major organic acid and its content was increased to 6,253.01 mg% on the 25th day from 246.05 mg% on the starting day. The anti-inflammatory effect on lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 1 μg/mL)-induced inflammatory reactions in RAW 264.7 cells demonstrated that treatment with GV decreased NO, PGE2, TNF-α and IL-1β production in RAW 264.7 cells by 77.37%, 21.94%, 69.17%, and 91.76%, respectively, and GV inhibited the activation of iNOS and COX-2 gene expression by 61.23% and 20.59%, respectively, at a 1:50 dilution. Based on these findings, the A. pasteurianus JBA190503 strain could be a suitable strain for the industrial fermentation of ginseng in ginseng vinegar production with an enhanced anti-inflammatory effect by increasing the production of low molecular ginsenosides and acetic acid.Key words :

  • The purpose of this study was to evaluate the status of food safety management in children’s foodservice facilities through sanitary check scores and ATP bioluminescence assays. The subjects were 88 children’s foodservice facilities each with between 21 and 99 children. When periodic visiting education in 2020, a sanitary check score was taken, and an ATP bioluminescence assay was conducted on knives, cutting boards, and the hands of cook workers. The total mean score for the sanitary checks was 79.0 points. The total averages of the ATP values were 23.5±94.3 RLU/cm2 for knives, 26.0±129.3 RLU/cm2 for cutting boards, 72.5±92.7 RLU/cm2 before washing, and 11.6±19.3 RLU/cm2 after washing for cook workers’ hands. The passing ratio of the ATP value (below 2 RLU/cm2 for knife and cutting board, below 15 RLU/cm2 for cook workers’ hand) was 44.3% for knives, 53.4% for cutting boards, and 22.7% for cook workers’ hands. According to the last year’s level of food safety management, the foodservice facilities were divided into upper and lower grades. The sanitary check scores were significantly (PKey words :

  • Article l 2021-03-31

    Optimization of Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction of Antioxidant from Cirsium setidens Using Response Surface Methodology

    Hye Lin Kim , Ji Woo Hong, Seong Jin Jeon, Hwa Yeong Kim, and Jin Woo Kim

    This study was conducted to optimize the ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) conditions for maximizing the responses, including total phenolic compound (TPC), total flavonoid compound (TFC), and radical scavenging activity (RSA) from Cirsium setidens using a response surface methodology (RSM). The following three variables were used to optimize the UAE process using the central composite method: extraction time (X₁: 5.0∼55.0 min), extraction temperature (X₂: 26.0∼94.0°C), and ethanol concentration (X₃: 0.0∼99.5%). The maximum yield of TPC (5.21 mg GAE/g DM), TFC (1.00 mg QE/g DM) and radical scavenging activity (86.7%) were obtained under the optimal conditions of 34.5 min, 63.7°C, and 62.2%. No significant differences were observed between the predicted and experimental values, indicating the suitability of the fitted model and the successful application of CCD. Based on these results, the antioxidant activity of the Cirsium setidens extract can be increased by optimizing the UAE conditions, and the extract can be used as a material for cosmetics, food, and medicine.Key words :

  • This study was undertaken to measure the physicochemical characteristics, and tyrosinase and elastase inhibitory activity of Sophorae fructus fermented with various useful microorganisms (BS: Bacillus subtilis, CU: Candida utilis, SC: Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain CHY1011, LP: Lactobacillus plantarum, LC: Lactobacillus casei), to investigate the potential for future application of Sophorae fructus as an industrial raw material in health functional foods and cosmetics. The highest yield of freeze-dried powder of fermented Sophorae fructus was obtained with LP. The total phenol content was highest in the group fermented by CU. Maximum flavonoid contents were obtained in the control group, but the group fermented by CU had highest total flavonoid content as compared to other fermented groups. The DPPH radical scavenging activity showed IC50 values of 0.20 mg/mL and 0.18 mg/mL in the control group and the group fermented by BS, respectively, whereas the ABTS radical scavenging activities had IC50 values of 1.15 mg/mL and 0.86 mg/mL for control group and the group fermented by CU, respectively. Highest FRAP value was obtained in the CU group. Tyrosinase inhibition activity was determined to be the highest at 10 mg/mL in the LP fermented group, whereas elastase inhibition was highest at 1 mg/mL in the BS fermented group. Evaluation of the antimicrobial activity revealed inhibition of Staphylococcus aureus growth. Taken together, our results indicate that fermentation of Sophora fructose using various microorganisms has the potential to be developed for use in functional foods and cosmetics, due to the acquired property of increased antioxidant activity and enzyme inhibition.Key words :

  • Article l 2021-04-30

    Comparative Study between Parts of Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.) for Taste and Flavor Properties

    Seong Jun Hong , Chang Guk Boo, Seong Uk Heo, and Eui-Cheol Shin

    Our research investigated sensory and chromatographical characteristics using an electronic tongue (E-tongue), electronic nose (E-nose), and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The characteristics of taste and flavor in parts of the fennel were measured by a non-destructive method and pattern analysis. The results of the E-tongue showed that the fennel seed had the highest sensor value of umami taste (UMS) and sourness taste (SRS) at 8.7 and 8.4, respectively. On the other hand, the sensor value of saltiness (STS) in the seed was detected at 4.5, which was lower compared to portions of the stem and bulb at 6.0 and 7.5, respectively. The E-tongue and E-nose principal component analysis (PCA) showed that the principal component 1 (PC1) represented 82.36% variance and PC2 represented 17.64% variance. The fennel bulb has been located on the first quadrant, with the highest sensor values of STS and the highest content of d-valerolactone, trans-anethole, 2-octanone, and 3-mercapto-2-pentanone. The fennel seed has been located on the second quadrant, with the highest sensor values of UMS and SRS, as well as 3-methyl nonane content. The fennel stem has been located on the fourth quadrant, which has the highest content of α-pinene. In the GC-MS analysis, a total of 129 volatile compounds were identified, which include 7 acids and esters, 20 alcohols, 16 aldehydes, 70 hydrocarbons, 6 heterocyclics, and 10 ketones in the sample sets. An analysis of odor active compounds showed p-anisic aldehyde elicits floral and fennel odors at 3 and 2 odor intensity in the stem and seed, respectively. α-Pinene, 5-methyl-3-(1-methylethylidene)-1,4-hexadiene, and trans-anethole elicit fennel odors. Specifically, trans-anethole was detected in all samples.Key words :

  • Article l 2021-06-30

    Study of Fermented Mealworm (Tenebrio molitor L.) as a Novel Prebiotic for Intestinal Microbiota

    Su Jung Lee , Gyoo Taik Kwon, Yi Hyung Chung, Jong-Sang Yoo, Kyung-Hoon Cho, Young-Suk Kim, and Han Su Jang

    Insects are attracting worldwide attention as important future industrial resources. Insect farming attracts public attention for commercialization especially in Korea, partly because of government subsidies and also support based on the legislation of the so-called “insect industry law”. Insects have a high nutritional value and contain protein, amino acids, vitamin B, etc., and are suitable for animal feed following the natural food web. Currently, crickets and mealworms are the most widely utilized in this regard. In this study, we measured amino acid changes in fermented mealworms (Tenebrio molitor L.). In addition, control, positive, and fermented mealworm (FM) diets were provided to BALB/c mice for 8 weeks. There was no change in dietary and body weight during the 8 weeks. The number of lactic acid bacteria in the intestines significantly increased in the FM group. There was no change in the total number of microbiota in each group nor was there any change in the general bacteria, E. coli, and E. coli form. These results suggest that fermented mealworm can be considered as a dietary prebiotic to improve the microbiota diversity of the human intestinal environment. However, further study for human application is necessary.Key words :

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January, 2023
Vol.52 No.1

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