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JKFN Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition



Online ISSN 2288-5978

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  • Article l 2021-02-28

    Photo-Protective Effect of AP Collagen Peptides on UV-Induced Skin Aging

    Ji-Hae Lee , Minjung Chae, Jin Kyu Choi, Wangi Kim, and Miyoung Park

    Extrinsic factors including chronic ultraviolet (UV) radiation, smoking, and other pollutants may cause skin damage and aging. Oral supplementation of collagen, a major component in the skin dermis can have a photo-protective effect and help improve skin conditions. This study examined the effects of AP collagen peptides (APCP) containing glycine-proline-hydroxyproline (GPH) on UVB radiation in both human skin fibroblast and SKH-1 hairless mice. In UVB-irradiated fibroblast, APCP and GPH improved collagen type I and transforming growth factor-β1 gene expression in a dose-dependent manner. To evaluate the effects of APCP on skin photo-aging in vivo, hairless mice were exposed to UVB irradiation and administered APCP orally for 12 weeks. In the APCP-treated group, the mouse skin showed improved wrinkle indices (total wrinkle area, number of wrinkles, total length of wrinkles and mean foam factor) and histopathological changes (collagen and elastic fiber, and epidermal and dermal thickness) with a better skin barrier status (transepidermal water loss, subcutaneous hydration) and elasticity (gross elasticity, net elasticity, a portion of the visco-elasticity, and a portion of the elasticity) compared to the mouse skin of the control group. These results suggest that APCP is a potent candidate for an anti-photoaging ingredient.Key words :

  • Spices are known to possess antibacterial activity against pathogens. In contrast, they also promote probiotic bacterial growth, such as Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium. In the current study, 10 strains isolated from Korean human feces and kimchi were screened for bacterial growth in the presence of spices mainly used in Korean foods, including garlic, onion, ginger, red pepper, and Chungyang pepper. Majority of the strains showed maximum growth in red pepper. In order to investigate properties of the candidate strains as probiotics, we evaluated the adhesion ability to intestinal epithelial HT-29 cells, acid and bile tolerance, and inhibition activity of gelatinase and urease. The functionality of the fermented product was subsequently studied, as most strains grew well in the presence of spices. The antioxidant activity was determined using DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl). Fermented products of ginger and red pepper with strains showed higher free radical scavenging activity than the spices themselves. In addition, subsequent to lipopolysaccharides-induced impairment, the fermented products of red pepper with selected strains also exhibited increased mRNA expression of tight junction protein in HT-29 cells. Taken together, the results of this study indicate that strains isolated from Korean human feces and kimchi have a high growth rate in the presence of spices, and their fermented products exert increased anti-oxidant activity, thereby indicating the potential functionality in improving gut barrier functions.Key words :

  • Article l 2021-01-31

    Antioxidant Activity and Hepatoprotective Effects of Extracts from Different Parts of Papaver rhoeas L.

    Hee Sun Yang , Mi Jin Kim, Mina Kim, Pu Reum Im, and Jeong-sook Choe

    This study examined the antioxidant activities of the two Papaver rhoeas L. (PR; PRP (pink flower PR), PRR (red flower PR)) on hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced oxidative stress in HepG2 cells. Different parts (whole, leaf, and fruit) of PRP and PRR were extracted with 50% ethanol. Their antioxidant activities were analyzed using the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging assay. The extracts were evaluated for cellular anti-oxidation and protection from the cell viability, intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging activity and antioxidant enzyme activities. The PR leaf and fruit extracts contained high amounts of bio-active compounds, such as total phenol and total flavonoid. The DPPH and ABTS results revealed antioxidant activity in the following order: leaf, fruit, and whole plant. The pretreatment with all the PR extracts increased the viability, antioxidant enzyme activities and intracellular ROS scavenging activity in a dose-dependent manner in H2O2-treated HepG2 cells. In particular, intracellular ROS scavenging activity was highest using the leaf extracts. These results suggest that 50% ethanol extracts of PR could be used as functional food sources.Key words :

  • Article l 2021-05-31

    The Efficacy of AP Collagen Peptides Intake on Skin Wrinkle, Elasticity, and Hydration Improvement

    Kyoungmi Jung , Mi-Suk Yang, Seung Hun Kim, Jonghwa Roh, and Wangi Kim

    Collagen is a component of the human body, known to have a beneficial effect on human health when consumed as a food or dietary ingredient. This double-blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of AP collagen peptides (APCP) containing 3% glycine-proline-hydroxyproline, on improving skin wrinkles, elasticity and hydration. Totally, 105 subjects with crow’s-feet wrinkles were randomly assigned to receive either placebo, APCP 1,000 mg or APCP 1,500 mg, once daily for 12 weeks. Efficacy endpoints of skin wrinkles, elasticity and hydration were measured at baseline, 6 and 12 weeks, and at the 2-week follow-up visit. Compared to the placebo group, the visual evaluations and R3 (average roughness) values of crow’s-feet wrinkles were significantly decreased in both APCP groups at 12 weeks, and these effects were maintained until 2 weeks after completion of ingestion. During the intake period at 6 and 12 weeks, three parameters for skin elasticity (R2, R5, R7) showed significant improvement in both APCP groups, as compared to the placebo group. The APCP groups also showed a statistically significant difference in skin hydration compared to the placebo group, at 12 weeks and at 2 weeks after the end of intake. No adverse effects were encountered during the study period. These results indicate that APCP 1,000 mg and 1,500 mg can be used as a functional food ingredient to improve human skin conditions related to skin aging and hydration.Key words :

  • Article l 2021-03-31

    Synergistic Effect of Improving Skin Hydration by Administration of Milk Ceramide and Low Molecular Fish Collagen Complex

    Hye-Jeong See , Yoon Seok Kim, Seok Jun Park, Jin Oh Yang, Sinai Lee, and Hye-Jin Kim

    The milk-derived milk ceramide (MC) and low molecular fish collagen (LFC) are materials that are effective in skin hydration and elasticity, and are widely used as skin functional ingredients. This study undertook a clinical trial to evaluate the synergistic effects of MC and LFC complex on skin hydration and elasticity. Participants (n=21) were randomly assigned to receive either MC, LFC, or a complex of MC and LFC, twice a day for 4 weeks. Skin hydration, transepidermal water loss (TEWL), elasticity and dermis density were assessed before and after the 4 weeks administration. Compared to the MC and LFC groups, skin hydration and TEWL were significantly improved (P<0.05) in the MC+LFC group after 4 weeks. Both skin elasticity and dermis density also showed improvement in the MC+LFC group after 4 weeks, but was not significantly different. Taken together, these results indicate that the mixture of MC and LFC exerts a synergistic effect in improving human skin hydration, as compared to MC and LFC administration individually.Key words :

  • Article l 2021-03-31

    Ginsenoside Conversion and Anti-Inflammatory Effect on RAW 264.7 Cells of Ginseng Extract Vinegar

    Kyung Eun Moon , Hyeon Hwa Oh, Do Youn Jeong, and Young-Soo Kim

    Ginseng liqueur (GL) was prepared by adding 9% alcohol to 2% ginseng extract, and was fermented using the selected Acetobacter pasteurianus JBA190503 strain. To another GL, 10% of the seed culture was added and incubated in a shaking incubator at 30°C and 120 rpm for 25 days. The ginsenoside contents of Rg3 and Rg5 in the ginseng extract vinegar (GV) were 55.58 μg/mL and 28.52 μg/mL, respectively, which were more than four times that of GL. The changes in the ginsenoside contents and physicochemical properties (soluble sugar content, pH, total acidity, and organic acid) of the ginseng extract were evaluated during the acetic acid fermentation period. On the 10th day of fermentation, the total acidity increased to 4.10% and reached 6.41% on the 25th day. Acetic acid was identified as a major organic acid and its content was increased to 6,253.01 mg% on the 25th day from 246.05 mg% on the starting day. The anti-inflammatory effect on lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 1 μg/mL)-induced inflammatory reactions in RAW 264.7 cells demonstrated that treatment with GV decreased NO, PGE2, TNF-α and IL-1β production in RAW 264.7 cells by 77.37%, 21.94%, 69.17%, and 91.76%, respectively, and GV inhibited the activation of iNOS and COX-2 gene expression by 61.23% and 20.59%, respectively, at a 1:50 dilution. Based on these findings, the A. pasteurianus JBA190503 strain could be a suitable strain for the industrial fermentation of ginseng in ginseng vinegar production with an enhanced anti-inflammatory effect by increasing the production of low molecular ginsenosides and acetic acid.Key words :

  • Cacao bean husks, removed from roasted cacao beans, account for 10∼15% of the composition of cacao beans and contain 3% polyphenols consisting of catechin, epicatechin, and procyanidin. This study examined the quality and antioxidant activity of cacao bean husk powder in cookies prepared with different concentrations of cacao bean husk (1%, 2%, 3%, and 5% of total material). The antioxidant activity was estimated by DPPH-ABTS+ assay, and by determining the total polyphenol and flavonoid content of cacao bean husk powder. To evaluate quality characteristics, we measured bulk density and pH of the dough, moisture content, spread factor, loss rate, leavening rate, color, hardness, and conducted sensory evaluations. When the cacao bean husk powder content increased, we observed a significant increase in the total polyphenol and flavonoid content and radical scavenging activity of the cookies measured using DPPH-ABTS+ (PKey words :

  • Article l 2021-01-31

    Various Biological Activities of Extracts from Deodeok (Codonopsis lanceolata Trautv.) Buds

    Ji Yeong Kim , Byung Soon Hwang, Su Hyun Kwon, Mi Jang, Gi Chang Kim, Hae Ju Kang, and In Guk Hwang

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the physiological activities for subsequent utilization of Deodeok (Codonopsis lanceolata Trautv.) buds as a new functional food. Deodeok buds (CLS-A∼D) were classified according to the growth length. The total polyphenol and flavonoid contents of the 70% ethanol extracts ranged from 580.82 to 719.56 mg GAE/100 g, and 287.45 to 398.52 mg CE/100 g, respectively. The contents tended to decrease with increasing growth length of Deodeok buds. The DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activity of CLS-B were determined to be 622.87 and 436.98 mg AA eq/100 g, respectively, showing the highest antioxidant activity. Similar to other contents, increasing growth length resulted in decreased antioxidant activity. Moreover, tyrosinase, α-glucosidase, and elastase enzyme inhibitory activities of Deodeok buds also showed best inhibitory effect in CLS-B. Considering the result of this study, we confirm the possibility of wide application of Deodeok buds as a new functional food material.Key words :

  • Article l 2021-02-28

    Inhibitory Effects of Zingiber officinale Roscoe Roots, Stems, and Leaves on Oxidative Stress through Free Radical Scavenging Activity

    Pu Reum Im , Hye-Jeong Hwang, Jeong Yeon Im, Yu-Jin Hwang, Dong-Geon Nam, Jeong-Sook Choe, and Kyung-A Hwang

    In this study, the antioxidant effects of Zingiber officinale Roscoe leaves and stems which have been registered as new food ingredients were comparatively analyzed with Z. officinale Rosc. roots. The increase in antioxidant activity was concentration-dependent in all extracts, and excellent antioxidant activity was confirmed in the roots (58%) and leaves (35%) at 100 μg/mL. The inhibitory effect of nitric oxide production was found in all samples. In particular, the leaves showed an inhibitory rate of 25∼31%, an effect similar to that of the roots (22∼37%), confirming their excellent efficacy. The stems showed a 24∼26% inhibition rate, but the inhibition was not concentration- dependent. The inhibitory effect of the roots, stems and leaves of Z. officinale Rosc. on the reactive oxygen species production was highest in the roots (21∼46%), followed by leaves (15∼30%) and stems (2∼11%). Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD) and Mn-SOD mRNA expressions were increased to high levels by the leaves. Glutathione peroxidase and catalase levels were in the increased in the roots, leaves, and stems, in that order. Through the results of this study, the antioxidant effects of Z. officinale Rosc. leaves and stems were confirmed, and excellent antioxidant activity was confirmed in the leaves. Z. officinale Rosc. leaves can therefore be considered for use as an antioxidant functional health food material in the future. However, since studies on the leaves are insufficient, additional studies in animals are needed to investigate the mechanism of the physiological activity of Z. officinale Rosc. leaves in the body.Key words :

  • This study was undertaken to confirm the antioxidant effects (electron donating ability (EDA) and ABTS radical scavenging ability) of the water (HSW) and ethanol (HSE) extracts of Hydrangea serrata Seringe on the inhibition of nitric oxide (NO), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and mitogen activating protein kinase (MAPK) phosphorylation, in LPS-induced RAW 264.7 cells. Results of the EDA test reveal that at 500 μg/mL, HSW demonstrates a good DPPH radical scavenging ability greater than 81.71%, whereas HSE demonstrates a scavenging ability greater than 89.56%. Evaluating the scavenging activity of ABTS radicals revealed that at 500 μg/mL, both HSW and HSE show superior scavenging activities of 99.4% and 96.1%, respectively. Determining the anti-inflammatory response showed that exposure to both HSW and HSE reduces the NO production in LPS-induced RAW 264.7 cells in a concentration-dependent manner, as compared to the group treated only with LPS. Moreover, exposure to both HSW and HSE resulted in a concentration-dependent inhibition of iNOS and COX-2 protein expressions. It was further confirmed that phosphorylation in the signaling pathway of MAPK was also significantly inhibited in a concentration-dependent manner. Since inhibition of MAPK phosphorylation inhibits iNOS and COX-2, which subsequently induces the expression of NO, our results indicate that extracts of Hydrangea serrata Seringe inhibit and regulate the production of inflammation-related factors. There are few reports on the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of Hydrangea serrata Seringe extracts. Therefore, considering the data obtained in the current study, we propose that Hydrangea serrata Seringe extracts have the potential to be used as useful anti-inflammatory materials in foods and cosmetics.Key words :

  • Article l 2020-12-31

    Inhibitory Effect of Yacon Leaf Extract on the Metabolic Syndrome Induced by a High Fructose Diet in Rats

    Hyun Wook Jang, So-Yeon Go, Mi Hyun Hong, and Young-Eun Lee

    This study was conducted to investigate the inhibitory effect of 70% ethanol extract of yacon leaf on the metabolic syndrome induced by a high fructose (HF) diet in male Sprague-Dawley (SD) white rats. Five-week-old rats were divided into four groups and the experiment was carried out for 8 weeks. AIN-76A diets were fed to the control group and 60% HF diet to the metabolic syndrome induced group. Yacon leaf extracts were orally administered to the two experimental groups from the 5th week of the HF diet. The HF diet increased body weight, blood pressure, epididymal fat weight and size, total cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL-C, insulin and aorta thickness of the rats, but yacon leaf extracts administration reduced these changes. These results suggest that yacon leaf has an excellent preventive effect on the metabolic syndrome by improving obesity, dyslipidemia and blood pressure induced by an HF diet in rats. Therefore, yacon leaf has the potential for use as an ingredient in novel health foods for the prevention of the metabolic syndrome in the future.Key words :

  • Article l 2021-03-31

    Optimization of Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction for Triterpene Compounds from Centella asiatica Using Response Surface Methodology

    Eunjeong Seong , Huijin Heo, Sewon Oh, Daeil Kim, Keum-Il Jang, and Junsoo Lee

    Centella asiatica is a psychoactive medicinal plant belonging to the Apiaceae family. The major bioactive compounds of Centella asiatica are triterpene saponins, including madecassoside, asiaticoside, madecassic acid, and asiatic acid. This study aimed to optimize the ultrasound-assisted extraction conditions to extract triterpenes from Centella asiatica using response surface methodology. A Box-Behnken design was employed to develop the following three extracting parameters, methanol concentration (X1: 60∼100%), extraction time (X2: 10∼50 min), and ultrasonic power (X3: 150∼250 W). The optimal extraction conditions of madecassoside (83.14 mg/g dry weight) and asiaticoside (19.71 mg/g dry weight) were obtained at X1=80%, X2=30 min, and X3=200 W. The predicted values from the model matched well with the experimental results obtained using the optimal extraction conditions. The coefficients of variation for the inter-day and intra-day precisions were less than 5%. The limits of detection for madecassoside, asiaticoside, madecassic acid, and asiatic acid were 0.32, 0.71, 0.09, and 0.15 μg/mL, respectively. These results indicate that the validation parameters were generally reliable and satisfactory.Key words :

  • This study analyzed the dietary conditions of Korean adolescents using the 2018 data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES), Korea Youth Risk Behavior Survey (KYRBS), and Consumer Behavior Survey for Food (CBSF). Totally, 397 (KNHANES), 60,040 (KYRBS), and 614 (CBSF) subjects were analyzed for this study. Subjects with normal weights were 69.0%, 73.0%, and 90.8%, respectively, and the rate of skipping breakfast was determined to be 31.8%, 33.6%, and 7.4%, respectively. The main reason for skipping meals was ‘not having enough time (78.3%)’, 45.2% of the subjects ate out more than ‘once/week’, 37.8% used the convenience store, and 51.9% ate out to eat delicious food. According to the KNHANES, the average food intake was 1,353.05 g/day, which differed in the amount of cereals, vegetables, seaweeds, oils and fat, and spices intake by gender. The nutrient intakes of energy, vitamin A, niacin, vitamin C, calcium, iron, dietary fiber and potassium were lesser than the recommended levels. Non-physical activity for more than 60 minutes a day per week was observed in 36.3∼82.0% of the subjects. Drinking experience among adolescents was 33.5∼42.3%, and the most popular frequency and amount of drinking were determined to be ‘once/month’ and ‘1∼2 glasses’, with almost no binge drinking reported. The experience of smoking was 14.9% for cigarettes, 7.9% for e-cigarettes, and 2.9% for heated tobacco, with 21.8% daily smokers, smoking an average of ‘2∼5 cigarettes/day (30.9%)’. Subjects receiving nutrition education were 21.2∼47.2%, with 95.8% having an awareness rate of nutrition labeling, but being implemented by a mere 33.2%.Key words :

  • Article l 2021-02-28

    Optimization of Ethanol Production from Watermelon by Enzyme Treatment

    Beesung Kim , Jihoo Kim, and Heeseob Lee

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the efficiency of ethanol produced by the response surface methodology using enzyme-treated low-grade watermelons (Citrullus vulgaris Schrad.). Before ethanol production, entire watermelons were treated with different sets of enzymes. The extraction yield with the Celluclast® 1.5L and Viscozyme® L (1:1) combination was significantly higher than other treatments. Compared to other conditions, the total sugar and reducing sugar contents were significantly higher with two conditions, viz., Celluclast® 1.5L and Viscozyme® L (1:1), and Celluclast® 1.5L, Pextinex® Ultra Pulp and Viscozyme L (1:1:1). To optimize the ethanol production from enzyme treated Citrullus vulgaris Schrad., a central composite design (CCD) was introduced, based on the following four variables: amount of Saccharomyces cerevisiae AFY (X1: 0∼6%), amount of Kluyveromyces marxianus KCCM 12015 (X2: 0∼6%), amount of Candida kefyr KCCM 50614 (X3: 0∼6%), and fermentation time (X4: 0∼10 days). The experimental data were fitted with quadratic regression equations, and the accuracy of the equations was analyzed by ANOVA. The statistical model predicted highest ethanol production of 6.18% under the optimal conditions X1= 3.61%, X2=1.5%, X3=1.5%, and X4=7.5 days. The optimized conditions were validated by observation of an actual ethanol production, which yielded 5.9% ethanol. These results agree well with the predicted model value.Key words :

  • The purpose of this study was to evaluate the status of food safety management in children’s foodservice facilities through sanitary check scores and ATP bioluminescence assays. The subjects were 88 children’s foodservice facilities each with between 21 and 99 children. When periodic visiting education in 2020, a sanitary check score was taken, and an ATP bioluminescence assay was conducted on knives, cutting boards, and the hands of cook workers. The total mean score for the sanitary checks was 79.0 points. The total averages of the ATP values were 23.5±94.3 RLU/cm2 for knives, 26.0±129.3 RLU/cm2 for cutting boards, 72.5±92.7 RLU/cm2 before washing, and 11.6±19.3 RLU/cm2 after washing for cook workers’ hands. The passing ratio of the ATP value (below 2 RLU/cm2 for knife and cutting board, below 15 RLU/cm2 for cook workers’ hand) was 44.3% for knives, 53.4% for cutting boards, and 22.7% for cook workers’ hands. According to the last year’s level of food safety management, the foodservice facilities were divided into upper and lower grades. The sanitary check scores were significantly (PKey words :

  • Previously, we have shown that green tea extract (GTE) lowers intestinal lipid absorption in rats. Evidence indicates that dioxins are lipophilic food pollutants. This study was conducted to investigate whether GTE would affect the luminal uptake of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (2,3,7,8-TCDD) by the intestinal mucosa in a rat model. Male rats were given free access to deionized water and an AIN-93G diet containing GTE at 0, 5, or 20 g/kg for 3 weeks. Rats weighing 320∼400 g were fasted for 14 hours prior to the experiment. Under isoflurane anesthesia, the abdomen was opened and a 10 cm long jejunal segment was quickly ligated in situ. A micellar solution [1.0 μCi 3H-2,3,7,8-TCDD, 0.026 pmol unlabelled 2,3,7,8-TCDD, 1.0 μCi 14C-oleic acid, 133.0 μmol unlabelled oleic acid, 66.7 μmol 2-monooleoylglycerol, and 16.5 mmol Na-taurocholate per L of PBS (pH 6.4)] was injected into the ligated jejunal segment. At 10 min, each rat was sacrificed and the segment was removed for lipid analysis. GTE lowered the luminal uptake of 3H-2,3,7,8-TCDD in a dose-dependent manner. Likewise, the mucosal rates of 14C-oleic acid esterification into lipids were dose-dependently decreased by GTE. These results indicate that both the lowered luminal 3H-2,3,7,8-TCDD uptake and the slower 14C-oleic acid esterification rates are attributable to the presence of GTE. This may be attributed to the inhibitory effect of GTE on the intestinal uptake and intracellular processing of lipids, thereby resulting in lowered intestinal absorption of dioxin and fats. Further studies are warranted to investigate the mechanisms underlying the inhibition of dioxin absorption by green tea or its catechins.Key words :

  • Article l 2021-02-28

    Effect of Extraction Methods on the Quality of Pomegranate Juice and Physiological Activity

    Hee Sook Kim , Ka-Yoon Oh, Song Min Lee, Ji-Youn Kim, Sang-Hyeon Lee, Jeong Su Jang , and Mun Hyon Lee

    This study aimed to compare the quality characteristics of pomegranate juice based on the extraction methods applied: centrifugal, single-gear, and twin-gear. Changes in the metabolic activities during digestion condition were further investigated. The twin-gear method was eventually identified as the optimal method, through comprehensive evaluation of the extraction rate, particle size, proximate composition, and the mineral and vitamin contents. Pomegranate juice derived using the twin-gear method had high-levels of bioactive substances such as phenolic compounds, flavonoids, anthocyanins, and selenium. Consequently, this juice exerted significant inhibitory effects on lipid peroxidation. Phenolic compounds are known to exhibit a high-correlation with skin-lightening, anti-aging, and anti-diabetic activities. An in vitro digestion model was used to evaluate changes in the antioxidant and angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activities. Compared to levels observed before digestion, the results revealed a marked increase in the 2,2′- azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) radical scavenging, ferric reducing antioxidant power, and superoxide dismutase-like activities as digestion progressed through the gastric phase condition, whereas most of these effects were stabilized or inhibited as digestion progressed through the intestinal phase. The ACE inhibitory activity was observed to increase after being subjected to gastric and intestinal digestion conditions. The correlation coefficients (r2) for ACE inhibition and antioxidant activities were in the range 0.681∼0.952, thus indicating a highly positive correlation. The findings of this study indicate that the bioactivity of pomegranate juice is enhanced, as determined by the increase in various physiological activities as well as increase in the bioaccessibility and bioavailability of bioactive substances during digestion.Key words :

  • Article l 2021-01-31

    Effects of the Size and Fractions Based on Molecular Weight on Sensory Characteristics of Jeju Winter Radish

    Juhee Kim , Woonseo Baik, Gyeonghye Yoon, Sanghyeok Lee, Ji-Yoon Jung, Wei Xu, Chang-Sook Kim, Eui-Cheol Shin, Youngseung Lee, and Sung-Soo Park

    This study was performed to investigate the effect of size and fractions based on the molecular weight on the sensory and textural properties of winter radishes grown in Jeju. Samples were sorted into large, medium, and small sizes according to their weight and treated either in a raw or blanched state. The samples were separated into three fractions according to their molecular weight. The blanched radish showed increased moisture and reduced astringent taste, hardness and chewiness compared to the raw radish, while no significant differences were observed among samples according to size. The small size of raw radish was more astringent compared to the large and medium sized radishes. There were significant differences in mechanical hardness among the products with medium-sized raw and blanched radishes being the softest and having highest uniformity. This indicates that the different sizes of radish should be taken into consideration when developing a product using radishes. The intensity of the pungent taste and aroma decreased with the increase in the molecular weight of the radish extracts. The extract with the lowest molecular weight also showed the highest bitterness. This suggests that the molecular weight of separated radish ingredients accounts for the inherent flavor of winter radish.Key words :

  • Article l 2021-01-31

    Quality Characteristics and Antioxidant Activity of Malt Made with Two-Row Barley

    Min Hyeong Kim , Kwon-Jai Lee, and Jeung Hee An

    This study was carried out to investigate the quality characteristics and antioxidant activities of domestic and foreign malts. The protein content of Hopum and Gwangmaeg barley was 13.83% and 10.57%, respectively. Also, the protein content of the Hopum and Gwangmaeg malts showed a higher increase at 14.95% and 11.65%, respectively, compared to barley, Denmark malt (9.78%), and German malt (11.8%). The Kolbach index of the Hopum and the Gwangmaeg malts was 17.18% and 16.39%. Diastatic power of the Hopum malt was observed at 163.39 W.K and Gwangmaeg malt at 157.79 W.K, which was higher than the malts from Denmark and Germany. The Gwangma eg malt had a total flavonoid content of 148.88 mg CHE/g which was higher than other malts. The DPPH radical scavenging activity of the Hopum malt showed high activity at 500 μg/mL concentration. The ABTS radical scavenging activity observed in the Hopum malt was higher (81.19%) compared to the Gwangmaeg malt (72.97%), and malt from Denmark (81.17%) at 1,000 μg/mL concentration. The extracts of the Hopum malt had the highest ABTS activity (81.19%) among the tested groups. The ABTS and DPPH scavenging ability and reducing power increased significantly with increasing malt concentration (P<0.05). These results suggest that domestic malts can be used effectively as functional foods with antioxidant activity or free radical scavenging activity.Key words :

  • Article l 2021-02-28

    Development of Puffed Grain Products Containing Synbiotic Materials Using Electrostatic Spray

    Min Su Jeong , Jeong Hyeon Oh, Chung Ha Lim, Jun Bae Ahn, Chun mi Lee, Jun Young Jeong, and Kwang Yup Kim

    This study aimed to develop synbiotic materials and apply them to puffed grain products using electrostatic spraying technology. Lactic acid bacteria were isolated from kimchi and selected through tests of acid resistance, bile-salt resistance, and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) content. The isolated Lactobacillus brevis CFM21 produced the highest GABA production up to a concentration of 926.42 μg/mL when grown in MRS broth containing 0.8% MSG. The possibility of coated grains as a prebiotic material was evaluated using confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). Rice bran extract containing 2% dextrose, 2% soytone, 0.2% potassium chloride, and 0.6% MSG produced 524.77 μg/mL of GABA. Citrus sinensis oil showed the highest antibacterial activity against Clostridium perfringens. Electrostatic spray showed much higher effectiveness than conventional spray in coating the puffed grain product through CLSM. Applying a rice bran culture and Citrus sinensis oil to puffed grain product using an electrostatic spray can help promote the intestinal health of consumers.Key words :

Journal Info

August, 2021
Vol.50 No.8

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Print ISSN 1226-3311 Online ISSN 2288-5978