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JKFN Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition



Online ISSN 2288-5978

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  • Review l 2022-09-30

    Development of AI-Based Healthcare System of Precision Nutrition for Health (PNH)

    Myoungsook Lee , Sang Duk Yoon , Jieun Shin , Jihyun Kim, and Sang Hoon Lee

    The AI-based precision nutrition for health (PNH) or personalized nutrition for health (PNH) system as healthcare platform business is expanding due to the paradigm shift from disease treatment to prevention along with the development of related technology, big data and artificial intelligence (AI). In the Covid-19 era, we have learned that AI-based healthcare system is considered the first defensive line for population. The healthcare platform has good chance of success since its service is highly related to the national health promotion to prevent disease. However, to establish successful platform, we need more government support in such areas as a control tower for the database (DB) sharing and verification, investment on research infrastructure to build the clinical data for Koreans, and training for multidisciplinary experts. This review is the first report to emphasize the necessity of the AI-based PNH as healthcare platform. We suggest the future direction or research guidelines of healthcare platform development by considering merits and demerits of current healthcare systems in developed countries and proposing ways to improve them. Also, we prepare the future promising technology against fierce competition to build a DB sharing mechanism and to develop related contents and technologies.Key words :

  • Article l 2022-08-31

    Evaluation of the Fermentation Characteristics and Functionality of Kombucha for Commercialization

    Jeongeun Lee , Jeonghun Cho , Junghun Kim , Hye Jin Choi , Daseul Lee , Jong Nam Kim , Younghoon Kim , and Sangdon Ryu

    Kombucha is a fermented beverage that is made up of green tea and a symbiotic culture of bacteria and yeast (SCOBY). Kombucha is well known for its high anti-oxidant activity, digestibility, and for its ability to prevent obesity. Our study used sugar as the primary substrate, and also used 5 secondary substrates (blueberry, pomegranate, zamboa, dried ginseng, omija) for secondary fermentation. We defined the microbiota in the SCOBY and measured the concentrations of many kinds of sugar, acids, and ethanol. Also, the antioxidant activity was measured by a DPPH assay, and the anti-inflammatory ability was measured by nitric oxide (NO) assay. The SCOBY identification process revealed the presence of Acetobacter spp., and yeasts such as Dekkera bruxellensis, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, and Bruxellensis spp. The pH level was between 2~4 after the first fermentation, and the high performance liquid chromatography analysis showed that the sucrose level decreased while the acetic acid level increased, which is presumed to be related to the fermentation process. The blueberry or dried ginseng- based secondary fermented kombucha showed a higher concentration of acetic acid than the other samples of secondary fermented kombucha. The results of the DPPH assay showed that sugar-primary fermented kombucha and sugar-dried ginseng kombucha had the highest antioxidant activity. In the NO assay, kombucha using zamboa and dried ginseng showed the best anti-inflammatory activity. Thus, this study confirmed the physiological characteristics of kombucha and its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects depending on the type of substrate added during the production and secondary fermentation.Key words :

  • Article l 2022-05-31

    Determination of the Protein Quality of Low-Molecular Weight Water-Soluble Chicken Breast Powder by a Protein Digestibility Corrected Amino Acid Score (PDCAAS) Analysis

    Jin A Lee , Min Ju Kim , Mi-Rae Shin , Seong-Soo Roh , Jung-Bok Lee , Ye hei Seo , Hyun Gyu Choi , and Hae-Jin Park

    This study was conducted to evaluate the protein quality of low-molecular weight water-soluble chicken breast powder (LWCP) by the protein digestibility corrected amino acid score (PDCAAS), which is a combination of the chemical score of the limiting amino acid multiplied by the true digestibility of the protein. The LWCP was hydrolyzed using by foodpro® alkaline protease for 4 hours at 55°C and was then further hydrolyzed with a combination of three enzymes (prozyme 2000P, bromelain, and papain) for 2 hours. Gel permeation chromatography (GPC) was used to measure the molecular weight distribution of the LWCP, isolated soy protein (ISP), and whey protein isolate (WPI). The protein quality of the LWCP was evaluated and compared with vegetable protein (ISP) and two animal proteins (WPI and casein). The protein quality was evaluated using a rodent bioassay of the protein digestibility and the amino acid composition of the LWCP was determined via high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). Test diets were supplied for five days after an adaptation period of 4 days, to an animal model comprising 21∼28 days old SD rats with an average body weight of 70∼80 g. During the balance period, the nitrogen contents in the feces were assayed. As a result of estimating the weighted average molecular weight using GPC, the LWCP was observed to have a smaller value (Mw 675) than those of the ISP (Mw 995) and WPI (Mw 6,666). The protein efficiency ratio and net protein ratio of the LWCP were 2.9 and 4.9, respectively. The PDCAAS value of the LWCP was 128.8% which was significantly higher than those of the ISP and WPI. These results suggest that LWCP appears to be a promising protein source with good biological values and digestibility.Key words :

  • Article l 2022-04-30

    Quality Characteristics of Plant-Based Proteins Used in Meat Analogs

    Sun Young Cho and Gi-Hyung Ryu

    This study aims to investigate the physicochemical and functional properties of promising plant-based proteins used for meat analogs processing. The plant-based proteins were isolated soy protein (ISP), gluten, pea proteins (Pea 1, 2) which are the different manufacturers, and isolated rice proteins (Rice 1, 2), and mung bean protein. The highest water absorption capacity (WAC) and oil absorption capacity (OAC) were observed in and pea protein (Pea 1), while the lowest WAC and OAC were seen in rice protein (Rice 2). Pea 1 had the highest emulsifying activity (EA) and emulsion stability (ES), whereas Rice 2 indicated in the lowest EA and ES. The highest nitrogen solubility index (NSI) was seen in ISP, while Rice 2 had the lowest NSI. Pea 1 had the higher NSI compare with Pea 2. Mung bean protein had the highest the antioxidant properties with DPPH radical scavenging activity and total phenolic content among the plant-based proteins. Pea 2 also had the higher antioxidant properties than Pea 1. Our study revealed that the kinds of plant-based proteins had the different physicochemical and functional properties, which could influence their quality characteristics of raw materials for meat analogs.Key words :

  • Review l 2022-05-31

    Current Status and Future Prospects of the Insect Industry as an Alternative Protein Source for Animal Feed

    Jung-Hyun Nam , Duri Kim , Ji-Yong Hyun , Hee-Jung Jin , Yun-Sang Choi , Jin-Ho Cho , Byoung Kon Lee , and Ji-Yeon Chun

    To study the domestic and foreign status of insects in animal feed, we summarized the productivity and possibility related to the utilization of insects as alternative protein feed in livestock production and aquaculture. Insects are reported to have high nutritional value and are rich source of proteins, amino acids, unsaturated fatty acids, vitamins, minerals, and fibers. In addition, they are low-cost and environmentally friendly, and can replace imported expensive resources such as fish and soybean meal. Furthermore, insects can be fed animal manure and food waste, including kitchen and agricultural waste, for breeding. These factors make insects an attractive source of animal feed. Since 2011, research on insects as products for animal feed increased rapidly but has recently shown a steady decline. However, the insect industry is steadily developing. Moreover, the ‘Control of Livestock and Fish Feed Act’ is being revised to revitalize the insect industry, and insect-based feed products are being released. This review will provide the current status of insects as an alternative resource in feed products, and ongoing research and projects. We will further discuss the prospect of the insect industry with these inputs.Key words :

  • Article l 2022-04-30

    Changes in Morphology, Total Polyphenols, Caffeine, and Chlorogenic Acid in Beans of Arabica Coffee (Coffea arabica) during Roasting

    Seolah Kim , Sun Woo Chung , Hyun Joo An , Chan Kyu Lim , Mi Kyoung Jeon , and Yeon Jin Jang

    Coffee comprises of numerous bioactive compounds, and has recently been cultivated in temperate regions. We investigated the morphological and phytochemical changes in beans of Coffea arabica cvs. Catuai, Caturra, and Geisha cultivated in the Republic of Korea, at three roasting stages: green bean, 1st crack, and 2nd crack. Morphological changes were estimated by considering the size parameters and weights. Total polyphenols were determined using spectrophotometry, and caffeine and chlorogenic acid were quantified using high-performance liquid chromatography with the appropriate standards. Increased volume and decreased weight were observed in the beans of all three cultivars after roasting. The content of total polyphenols was about 13.74 mg gallic acid equivalent/g dry weight. The analysis of variance revealed that the contents of total polyphenols was insignificant among the cultivars and there was no significant change in the roasting stages. Compared to green bean, decreased contents of caffeine were obtained in the 1st crack and 2nd crack of ‘Catuai’. Chlorogenic acid contents were dramatically decreased in the 1st and 2nd crack of all three cultivars, as compared to green bean. Among the cultivars, ‘Geisha’ showed maximum decrease in chlorogenic acid (about 96%, 1.87 mg/mL) at 2nd crack, compared to the green bean (44.72 mg/mL). These results provide information about the characteristics of various coffee cultivars grown in the Republic of Korea during roasting.Key words :

  • Article l 2022-06-30

    Different Blanching and Thawing Methods Affect the Qualities of Potatoes and Carrots: A Study Done at Jeju Island

    Ji-Hyun Im , Jung-Hyun Nam , A-Ra Ko , Hee-Jung Jin , Duri Kim , Chang-Sook Kim , and Ji-Yeon Chun

    This study investigates the effects of various blanching methods (hot water blanching (HB) or steam blanching (SB)) and thawing methods (room temperature thawing (RT), running water thawing (WT), and microwave thawing (MT)) on the quality attributes of frozen potatoes and carrots. Blanched potatoes and carrots were frozen using individual quick freezing (−35°C), followed by applying various thawing methods. We observed increased thawing speed in the order of RT, WT, and MT. The MT method was about 24 to 70 times shorter than the other methods. The thawing losses were influenced by the blanching methods which affect the drip loss and moisture contents of potatoes and carrots. The blanching process reduced the browning of potatoes but did not affect color of the carrots. No change was obtained in the pH value when considering different blanching or thawing methods. The hardness of potatoes and carrots tended to be lowered by blanching treatment. SB treated potatoes and carrots had high DPPH radical scavenging ability and vitamin C content. Especially, the WT treated potatoes and carrots had the highest total polyphenol content. Our results confirmed that SB is an excellent pre-treatment for potatoes and carrots from the nutritional aspect, and blanching pre-treatment before the freezing process could suppress the quality changes that occur during the thawing processes. Furthermore, we propose that RT after SB treatment for potatoes and carrots is probably the most suitable method to maintain their nutritional quality.Key words :

  • Article l 2022-04-30

    A Survey on the Hardness and Viscosity of Senior-Friendly Foods Available in the Japanese Market

    Yun Jeong Kim , In Young Lee, Yong Gi Chun, Min Hyeock Lee, and Bum-Keun Kim

    This study investigates the physical properties of senior-friendly foods marketed in Japan, certified by the universal design food (UDF), by applying the method specified in the Korean Industrial Standards (KS). Hardness measured using a Ø20 mm probe revealed that all samples satisfied the UDF grade criteria presented on the product. The hardness measured with the Ø3 mm and Ø5 mm probes for the solids contained in the product was higher than the values obtained with the Ø20 mm probe. Accordingly, classification based on the KS grade resulted in some samples being classified differently from the UDF grade. In addition, the relative standard deviations of the UDF fourth-graded samples were lower than values of other graded samples, indicating the homogeneous matrix of the UDF fourth-graded samples. Finally, the viscosity of UDF third- and fourth-graded samples was 1,500 mPa·s or more, which satisfied the UDF grades 3rd, 4th, and KS grade 3rd. However, due to the presence of solid particles with high values of hardness, some UDF third-graded samples were classified as KS first-grade. Therefore, elderly subjects with chewing and swallowing disorders need to show caution when consuming these imported foods. This study was intended to enhance the understanding of standards related to the physical properties of senior-friendly foods marketed in Korea and Japan, and to use the results as basic data for the development of senior-friendly foods that meet the KS standards.Key words :

  • Article l 2022-05-31

    Comparison of Physicochemical Characteristics, Functional Compounds, and Physiological Activities in Adzuki Bean Cultivars

    Narae Han , Koan Sik Woo, Jin Young Lee, Seuk Bo Song, Yu-Young Lee, Mihyang Kim, Moon Seok Kang, and Hyun-Joo Kim

    This study was undertaken to investigate the physicochemical characteristics, functional compounds, and physiological activities of adzuki bean cultivars. The crude lipid and protein contents showed a significant difference between AB cultivars, ranging from 0.30∼0.76% and 21.54∼24.09%, respectively. Starch and amylose contents were determined to range between 46.77∼51.51% and 15.67∼18.24%, respectively, and were relatively lower in ‘Yeonduchae’ than in other cultivars. Breakdown, which is an index of superior taste, was highest in ‘Seona’ and ‘Yeonduchae’, whereas setback, which is an index of retrogradation property, was lower in ‘Geomguseul’ and ‘Yeonduchae’ than in other cultivars. The water binding capacity and solubility were determined to be 116.86∼188.22% and 24.72∼27.44%, respectively, and were significantly higher in ‘Yeonduchae’ than in other cultivars. Insoluble and soluble dietary fiber contents showed a significant difference between the cultivars, ranging from 6.59∼8.63% and 0.24∼0.91%, respectively; both contents were relatively higher in ‘Geomguseul’. Total polyphenol content was highest in ‘Huinguseul’ (15.53 mg GAE/g), and phytic acid levels were highest in ‘Chungjupat’ and ‘Seona’ (1.08 and 1.05 g/100 g, respectively). Antioxidant activity was relatively higher in ‘Huinguseul’ and ‘Hongeon’ and lower in ‘Huinnarae’ and ‘Arari’ as compared to other cultivars. α-Glucosinase and tyrosinase inhibition activities were significantly higher in ‘Huinguseul’ (29.30%) and ‘Geomguseul’ (57.77%). The present study provides basic information on the functional properties of adzuki bean cultivars, and will aid the utilization of adzuki bean as a material for food processing and in the cosmetic industry.Key words :

  • Article l 2022-07-31

    Effect of Eurycoma longifolia Extract on Testosterone Synthesis in TM3 Leydig Cells under Oxidative Stress

    Jae In Jung , Sangwon Eun , Jae Kyoung Lee , Young Ha Seo , Mun Hyoung Bae , Ryong Kim , and Eun Ji Kim

    Animal and human studies have suggested that Eurycoma longifolia extract (ELE) ameliorates andropause symptoms by increasing testosterone levels. However, the mechanisms responsible for this effect have yet to be elucidated. We examined the effects of ELE on testosterone levels and the expressions of steroidogenic enzymes in TM3 Leydig cells under H2O2-induced oxidative stress. When cells were treated with 50 μM H2O2, testosterone levels and the expressions of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) (involved in cholesterol transport) and 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3β-HSD) and 17-α-hydroxylase (CYP17A1) (involved in testosterone synthesis) were significantly decreased. On the other hand, the expressions of 5α-reductase and aromatase, which convert testosterone to dihydrotestosterone and estradiol, respectively, were increased. In addition, ELE significantly increased testosterone levels and the expressions of StAR, 3β-HSD, and CYP17A1, but decreased 5α-reductase and aromatase expressions in TM3 cells exposed to H2O2-induced oxidative stress. These results indicate that ELE protects against oxidative stress-induced testosterone reduction by increasing cholesterol transport and testosterone synthesis and decreasing testosterone conversion. These observations suggest ELE might be used to alleviate the symptoms of andropause caused by low testosterone levels.Key words :

  • Article l 2022-07-31

    Synergistic Protective Effect of Agastache rugosa and Centella asiatica against UVB-Induced Damage in Human Skin Fibroblasts

    Minha Kim , Seungjun Lee, Huijin Heo, Jong-Wook Chung, Jeehye Sung, Heon Sang Jeong, and Junsoo Lee

    Ultraviolet B (UVB) irradiation is a major cause of the photoaging of human skin. Centella asiatica (CA) has been used as an effective anti-photoaging agent, mainly because it increases type Ⅰ collagen levels. On the other hand Agastache rugosa (AR) is a source of bioactive compounds that protect human skin fibroblasts against UVB irradiation by restoring the antioxidant defense. In this study, we investigated the synergistic protective effects of CA and AR in combination (CA-AR) against UVB-induced damage in human skin fibroblasts (Hs68 cells). Cell viabilities and protective effects were examined using an MTT assay with or without UVB irradiation (30 mJ/cm2). CA, AR, and CA-AR did not have a cytotoxic effect. The synergistic effects of CA and AR were analyzed using combination indices (CI) and isobologram models, and the optimal CA to AR ratio was 3:7. CA, AR, and CA-AR 3:7 increased cell viability by 87%, 80%, and 98%, respectively in UVB irradiated Hs68 cells, and at this ratio. CA-AR 3:7 had CI values ranging from 0.03 to 0.41 and was 71∼97% more effective than CA or AR alone against UVB-induced photoaging. These results suggest that the CA-AR combination has potential use in functional foods and cosmeceutical preparations.Key words :

  • This study investigated the protective effect of the Abies holophylla leaf extract on the alcohol metabolism enzyme activity and against H2O2 and ethanol-induced oxidative stress in HepG2 cells. The effect of Abies holophylla leaf extract on alcohol metabolism was determined by measuring the generation of reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) by alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and acetaldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH). ADH and ALDH activities of Abies holophylla leaf extract were increased in a dose-dependent manner (PKey words :

  • Article l 2022-04-30

    Sequence Analysis and Molecule Docking of Collagenase Inhibitory Peptides from the Peptic Hydrolysate of Flounder Skin

    Dong-Hwan Kim , You-An Kang , Jonghyun Ko , Yeung Joon Choi , and Sang-Keun Jin

    Bioactive peptides were isolated from the peptic hydrolysate of flounder skin using chromatographic methods, and their amino acid sequence was identified. The collagenase inhibitory ability of the hydrolysate was evaluated. Seven peptides, including Gln-Phe, Val-Ile-Cys-Glu, Arg-Gly-Glu, Val-Asp-Leu, Gly-Pro-Met, Gly-Ser-Ala- Pro-Glu, and Arg-Leu, were identified using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry. Six peptides in the range of 6 to 18 amino acid residues were identified using LC/quadrupole time-of-flight (Q-TOF) mass spectrometry. All the peptides were verified on the type I collagen α-1 chain obtained from the Bastard halibut of Unitprot (www.uniprot.org) (code number: Q5NT96). Analysis of the seven peptides from the MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry was carried out using in silico simulation tools, and four peptides were further assessed for their potential collagenase inhibitory activities. The amino acid sequence of Val-Ile-Cys-Glu showed the highest GOLD score of 83.9 in in silico molecular docking and inhibited the collagenase activity up to 83% compared to control. Gly-Pro-Hyp, a quality index for the product, was also verified by the high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method and measured 156 μg/g in the hydrolysate. These results suggest that the peptic hydrolysate from flounder skin contains small peptides with high collagenase inhibitory activity. This hydrolysate may find application as a food material or as an ingredient in skin products with an anti-wrinkle function.Key words :

  • Article l 2022-07-31

    Antioxidant and Hepatoprotective Effects of Different Varieties of Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) with Variation in Lignan Content

    Min Young Kim , Sungup Kim, Jung In Kim, Eunyoung Oh, Sang Woo Kim, Jeongeun Lee, Eunsoo Lee, and Myoung Hee Lee

    This study was performed to investigate the distribution of the functional compounds in different varieties of sesame (cv. Daheuk, cv. Goenbaek, cv. Milyang 74) during processing, as well as their antioxidant and hepatoprotective effects. The total polyphenol and flavonoid content ranged from 0.37∼2.79 mg gallic acid equivalent/g and 0.03∼1.13 mg catechin equivalent/g in different varieties of sesame, roasted sesame, sesame oil, and sesame meal. The major lignans were identified as sesamin, sesamolin, sesaminol, sesaminol diglucoside, and sesaminol triglucoside. The highest total lignan content (10.87∼19.44 mg/g) and ABTS radical scavenging activity (1.76∼5.14 mg Trolox equivalent/g) were observed in the Milyang 74 cultivar regardless of processing. Furthermore, extracts of Milyang 74 effectively improved cell viability and inhibited reactive oxygen species generation in oxidative stress-induced HepG2 cells. These results suggest that the Milyang 74 cultivar could effectively mediate physiological activity. The study provides valuable information for the use of sesame as a functional food material.Key words :

  • Article l 2022-06-30

    Effect of Hot Air or Combined Drying Treatment on Physicochemical Properties and Antioxidant Activity of Jeju Beets

    A-Ra Ko , Jung-Hyun Nam , Hee-Jung Jin , Ji-Hyun Im , Han-Sang Kim, and Ji-Yeon Chun

    Beet (Beta vulgaris L.) is a healthy food that has recently attracted the consumer’s attention. However, beet has low storage stability due to the high moisture content. Therefore, a drying process is necessary to improve the beet quality. In this study, Jeju beet was dried by applying two processes: hot air drying (4.5 hours at 70°C, 6 hours at 60°C, 13 hours at 50°C) and combined drying (hot air and infrared radiation, 1 hour at 100°C). The effect of both processes was investigated on the physicochemical properties and antioxidant activity was investigated. The dried beets were compared for their appearance, drying yield, moisture content, water activity, pH value, color, rehydration ratio, betalain pigment content, total polyphenol content, DPPH radical scavenging activity, ABTS+ radical scavenging activity, and FRAP assay. The beet subjected to combined drying was determined to have high storage properties due to its low moisture content and pH value. In addition, the combined dried beet showed the highest rehydration ratio and antioxidant activity. Taken together, our results indicate that an appropriate combination of hot air and infrared radiation is suitable to produce high-quality dried beet.Key words :

  • Article l 2022-05-31

    Physical Characterization and Manufacturing of Frozen Meal Kit Shredded Radish Using Various Freezing and Thawing Conditions

    Duri Kim , Jung-Hyun Nam , Ji-Yong Hyun , Chang-Sook Kim , and Ji-Yeon Chun

    This study was conducted to find the optimal freezing and thawing conditions for shredded radish (0.5×0.5×5 cm), which was frozen by conventional slow freezing (−25°C), or individual quick freezing (air blast freezing, −25°C, and −35°C). The frozen shredded radish was thawed using natural air convection thawing (25°C), running water thawing (18°C), and refrigeration thawing (4°C). The freezing and thawing were stopped when the core temperature reached −20°C and 4°C, respectively. The freezing time for air-blast freezing (7 min) was faster than conventional slow freezing, and the thawing time was faster in the order of running water thawing, natural air convection thawing, and refrigeration thawing. The pH of the radish increased after freezing and thawing. But no consistent trend of pH or °Brix as per the variance in thawing conditions was observed. Moreover, there was no significant difference seen in the moisture content. The thawing loss was affected by thawing rather than freezing. The hardness of the radish decreased after being subjected to all the freezing and thawing conditions. However, air blast freezing (−35°C) was most similar to the raw radish. The nutritional aspects of the air blast freezing (−35°C) and running water thawing samples were most similar to that of the raw radish (vitamin C contents, antioxidant activity, and total phenol contents). The sensory attributes of texture, visual form, and taste showed high scores in the raw material, running water thawing, and refrigeration thawing samples, respectively. It was observed from these results that the thawing conditions had a greater effect on radish qualities than the freezing conditions. Also, based on these results, we recommend that a combination of air blast freezing (−35°C) and running water thawing (18°C) could maintain the quality of shredded radish.Key words :

  • Article l 2022-06-30

    Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Leaf-Fruit Extract Mixture of Lycium barbarum

    Ji Eun Kim , Sung Jin Lee , Eun Young Bae , and Sun Yung Ly

    This study investigates the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and whitening effects of Lycium barbarum extracts. Mixtures of 50% ethanol fractions of Lycium barbarum fruit and chlorophyll-removed leaf were prepared in ratios of 1:1, 2:1, 3:1, and 5:1 (M1, M2, M3, and M5), respectively. The total polyphenol content of the sample, DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging ability, and FRAP values were measured as antioxidant activity. The inhibitory effect of NO, TNF-α, and IL-6 production in Raw 264.7 cells was measured as anti-inflammatory activity. In addition, to examine the functionality as a cosmetic raw material, we measured the efficacy of inhibiting tyrosinase and the elastase activity of the sample. We observed that the polyphenol content was significantly higher in the M3 (154.6 mg GAE/g) and M5 (142.4 mg GAE/g) samples, and their FRAP value and DPPH and ABTS radicals scavenging activities were significantly higher compared to M1 or M2 samples. The inhibitory effect of tyrosinase activity was significantly higher in M2 and M5 (78% and 77% of kojic acid, respectively). The mixture showed no cytotoxicity in Raw 264.7 cells up to a concentration of 1,000 μg/mL. Samples M3 and M5 significantly inhibited NO, TNF-α, and IL-6 production in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated Raw 264.7 cells. In conclusion, we determined that the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and whitening effects were greater in mixtures containing a higher ratio of the chlorophyll-removed Lycium leaves fraction.Key words :

  • Article l 2022-08-31

    Anti-Amnesic Effect of Curcumin Spray Dry Powders on Scopolamine-Induced Mouse Memory Impairment

    Dae-Won Kim , Jae Jun Choung, Chang Ho Shin, Yun Seok Chun, Jong Kyu Kim, Nam Kyu Yun, Han Ju Lee, Sae Kwang Ku , and Bo Seung Seo

    We report that curcumin spray powder (CM-SD) alleviated scopolamine-induced memory impairment by suppressing scopolamine-induced ACh levels and upregulating hippocampal ChAT and memory susceptibility genes, including, BDNF, PI3K, Akt, ERK1/2, CREB, and CaMK IV in C57BL/6 mice. Previous studies have reported that scopolamine treatment in C57BL/6 mice significantly decreased step-through latency in the passive avoidance task test, hippocampus ACh contents, ChAT mRNA expression, and the expressions of memory susceptibility genes. In the present study, scopolamine treatment increased escape latency times in the Morris water maze test, the activity of hippocampal AChE in C57BL/6 mice, and disrupted the cerebral cortex anti-oxidant defense system. However, CM-SD, treatment dose-dependently reduced these effects in our scopolamine-induced C57BL/6 mouse model of amnesia. Our findings indicate CM-SD is a potential medicinal food ingredient that might ameliorate various types of memory impairment.Key words :

  • The quality characteristics, physiologically bioactive substance content, and antioxidant activity of different color cherry tomatoes (red, orange, yellow, and green) were measured. The moisture, crude protein, and crude fat contents of cherry tomatoes obtained were in the range 92.38∼93.34%, 0.14∼0.16%, and 0.04∼0.06%, respectively, with no difference observed according to color. Sugar content was the highest for red tomatoes (7.50 Brix) and the lowest for green tomatoes (5.80 Brix). The green tomato had the lowest pH of 4.14 and the highest acidity (0.42). Brightness (L*) was the highest in yellow tomatoes and lowest in red tomatoes. The highest values for redness and yellowness were obtained for red and yellow tomatoes, respectively. The tomato color had no effect on the total polyphenol content, but was relatively high in yellow tomato (344.19 μg GAE/g). The total flavonoid content of cherry tomatoes ranged between 62.37∼100.49 μg QE/g and showed the highest value (100.49 μg) in yellow cherry tomatoes. Lycopene was the highest in red tomatoes, and β-carotene was the highest in orange tomatoes. DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activities were 77.39∼78.07% and 64.08∼65.24%, respectively, showing no significant difference between the colors. Taken together, the above results show that contents of flavonoids and carotenoids differed in cherry tomatoes depending on the color, but the overall antioxidant activity was high, irrespective of color.Key words :

  • Article l 2022-08-31

    Optimization of Spray Drying Conditions for Immature Citrus unshiu Concentrates Using Response Surface Methodology

    Hye-Yoon Yi , Jae-Wan Park , Seok-Kyu Yu , Dong-Shin Kim , and Ji-Yeon Chun

    Immature Citrus unshiu contains large amounts of various physiologically active substances compared to mature Citrus unshiu. They are also known to exert various biological effects such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-obesity. However, the active ingredients that express functionality generally have disadvantages under external environments such as light, heat, and pH. Therefore, we conducted microencapsulation using a spray drying technology to protect the active ingredients of immature Citrus unshiu concentrate (ICUC). We further strived to establish optimal processing conditions using the Box-Behnken design method of response surface methodology (RSM). In order to develop the optimized immature Citrus unshiu powder using RSM, the inlet temperature (X1), aspirator power (X2), and maltodextrin concentration (X3) were set as independent variables, and quality characteristics such as dry yield (Y1), water content (Y2), water activity (Y3), total phenolic content (Y4), and particle size (Y5) were set as dependent variables. The P values of the Y1, Y4, and Y5 models were all less than 0.0001, and the determination coefficient (R2) was 0.9541, 0.9767, and 0.9799, respectively, confirming the model’s suitability and reliability. The maximum value of dry yield (15.75%) and minimum value of water activity (0.079) and particle size (346.44 nm) were obtained under the optimal conditions of inlet temperature 200°C, aspirator power 99.75%, and maltodextrin concentration 20%. In conclusion, we believe that this study will help establish optimal spray drying conditions for microencapsulation of ICUC and other fruit and vegetable extracts.Key words :

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March 2024
Vol.53 No.3

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