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JKFN Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition

Online ISSN 2288-5978

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  • Review l 2022-09-30

    Development of AI-Based Healthcare System of Precision Nutrition for Health (PNH)

    Myoungsook Lee , Sang Duk Yoon , Jieun Shin , Jihyun Kim, and Sang Hoon Lee

    The AI-based precision nutrition for health (PNH) or personalized nutrition for health (PNH) system as healthcare platform business is expanding due to the paradigm shift from disease treatment to prevention along with the development of related technology, big data and artificial intelligence (AI). In the Covid-19 era, we have learned that AI-based healthcare system is considered the first defensive line for population. The healthcare platform has good chance of success since its service is highly related to the national health promotion to prevent disease. However, to establish successful platform, we need more government support in such areas as a control tower for the database (DB) sharing and verification, investment on research infrastructure to build the clinical data for Koreans, and training for multidisciplinary experts. This review is the first report to emphasize the necessity of the AI-based PNH as healthcare platform. We suggest the future direction or research guidelines of healthcare platform development by considering merits and demerits of current healthcare systems in developed countries and proposing ways to improve them. Also, we prepare the future promising technology against fierce competition to build a DB sharing mechanism and to develop related contents and technologies.Key words :

  • Article l 2022-01-31

    Composition of Collagen Extracted from the Skin of Three Different Varieties of Fish

    Seon-Ah Son , Eun Seong Shin, Yoo Min Park, Ayeong Ma, Hyelin Yang, ShinHye Kim, and Tai-Sun Shin

    Many studies have been conducted on the methods of collagen extraction from fish skin. However, the specific composition of the collagen has not been reported so far. This study aimed to identify components other than amino acids in collagen. Collagen was extracted from the skin of tilapia (Oreochroma niloticus), flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus), and red sea bream (Pagrus major) using a commonly used acid extraction method. Thereafter, the component composition of collagen was confirmed. The yield of collagen was 1.11% from tilapia, 1.79% from red sea bream, and 2.06% from flounder. The protein content of all three samples, tilapia (85.39%), red sea bream (87.48%), and flounder (92.06%) collagen was over 85%. Analysis of the amino acid composition revealed that, glycine accounted for the highest proportion in all the samples of fish skin and collagen. The imino acid content was highest in the tilapia skin (151.1 residues) and collagen (210.7 residues). The triglyceride content in the of collagen was less than 0.7% in tilapia (0.37%), sea bream (0.61%), and flounder (0.31%). The major fatty acids in collagen were palmitic acid, stearic acid, and nervonic acid. Calcium in the fish skin accounted for the highest proportion of the mineral composition at 23.96∼466.84 mg/100 g, and the collagen contained a large amount of sodium 189.28∼1,433.52 mg/100 g. The collagen contained galactose, glucose, and mannose, and the galactose and glucose levels were three times higher than those of fish skin. Our study confirmed that the collagen extracted from fish skin contained lipids and minerals even though it was purified.Key words :

  • Protaetia brevitarsis seulensis (P. brevitarsis) larvae have traditionally been used in alternative medicine. Although various health benefits have been reported, the immunomodulatory effects of P. brevitarsis extract have so far been unknown. In this study, the immune-enhancing activities of P. brevitarsis larvae hot-water extract (PLW) were investigated using the RAW 264.7 macrophage cell line. The PLW did not exert cytotoxicity at concentrations ranging from 1 to 200 μg/mL in RAW 264.7 cells. The treatment of PLW increased the production of nitric oxide and cytokines [tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6)] at doses of 100, 200 μg/mL in RAW 264.7 cells. Additionally, treatment with PLW (100, 200 μg/mL) led to the increase of surface molecules (cluster of differentiation; CD80/86 and major histocompatibility complex; MHC-class Ⅰ/Ⅱ) expression in RAW 264.7 cells. These immunomodulatory effects of PLW were mediated by mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK-extracellular signal-regulated kinase, c-Jun N-terminal kinase, p38 MAPK) phosphorylation and nuclear factor (NF)-κB translocation. In conclusion, these findings provide experimental evidence that PLW can be used as an immunity-enhancing nutraceutical ingredient.Key words :

  • Article l 2022-08-31

    Evaluation of the Fermentation Characteristics and Functionality of Kombucha for Commercialization

    Jeongeun Lee , Jeonghun Cho , Junghun Kim , Hye Jin Choi , Daseul Lee , Jong Nam Kim , Younghoon Kim , and Sangdon Ryu

    Kombucha is a fermented beverage that is made up of green tea and a symbiotic culture of bacteria and yeast (SCOBY). Kombucha is well known for its high anti-oxidant activity, digestibility, and for its ability to prevent obesity. Our study used sugar as the primary substrate, and also used 5 secondary substrates (blueberry, pomegranate, zamboa, dried ginseng, omija) for secondary fermentation. We defined the microbiota in the SCOBY and measured the concentrations of many kinds of sugar, acids, and ethanol. Also, the antioxidant activity was measured by a DPPH assay, and the anti-inflammatory ability was measured by nitric oxide (NO) assay. The SCOBY identification process revealed the presence of Acetobacter spp., and yeasts such as Dekkera bruxellensis, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, and Bruxellensis spp. The pH level was between 2~4 after the first fermentation, and the high performance liquid chromatography analysis showed that the sucrose level decreased while the acetic acid level increased, which is presumed to be related to the fermentation process. The blueberry or dried ginseng- based secondary fermented kombucha showed a higher concentration of acetic acid than the other samples of secondary fermented kombucha. The results of the DPPH assay showed that sugar-primary fermented kombucha and sugar-dried ginseng kombucha had the highest antioxidant activity. In the NO assay, kombucha using zamboa and dried ginseng showed the best anti-inflammatory activity. Thus, this study confirmed the physiological characteristics of kombucha and its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects depending on the type of substrate added during the production and secondary fermentation.Key words :

  • Article l 2022-02-28

    LC/MS-Based Metabolomic Analysis of Peels from Citrus Varieties

    Je-Eun Lee , Jeong-Hyeon Ahn , Dong-Shin Kim, Sang Suk Kim, Suk Man Park, Su Hyun Yun, Seung-Gab Han, and Hyun-Jin Kim

    Many new citrus varieties are developed to improve their quality, but the chemical profiles of their peels are rarely investigated. In this study, the peel metabolite profiles of 13 citrus varieties were analyzed using ultra-performance liquid chromatography-quadruple time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF MS) and their correlation with antioxidant activity was evaluated. Among the citrus peel metabolites, 30 flavonoids, including polymethoxyflavone (PMF), and vitamin C were identified. These flavonoids contributed to the difference between the 13 citrus peels, and their relative contents varied with each variety. Hesperidin, sinestin, nobiletin, tetramethoxyflavone derivatives, and tangeretin were identified as the major flavonoids in citrus peel, while rhoifolin, margaritene, isomargaritene, catharitcin, and fortunellin were detected only in Changshou kumquat. The correlation data between the metabolite profile and antioxidant activity indicated that didymin and some polymethoxyflavones had a positive correlation with antioxidant activity, while the flavonoids in Changshou kumquat had a negative correlation. Based on these data, the 13 citrus varieties were clustered into three groups: Changshou kumquat (cluster Ⅰ), Setoka and Kanpei (cluster Ⅱ), and other varieties (cluster Ⅲ). These results provide information on peel metabolites and their distribution according to citrus varieties. However, further studies on the beneficial effects of each metabolite and citrus peel are necessary.Key words :

  • In the present study, we isolated Saccharomyces cerevisiae boulardii-03 from the traditional Nuruk called Gongbyunggok and then analyzed its probiotic characteristics. The isolated yeast showed non-galactose assimilation, acid tolerance in pH 2.0, and an active growth rate at a high temperature of 37°C, which reveals this boulardii-03 strain has not only the ability to produce alcohol, but also resistance to gastrointestinal conditions. As a result of an in vivo study, the yeast supplementation showed significant anti-inflammatory properties in a mouse model of DSS (dextran sulfate sodium)-induced intestinal inflammation. In addition, after the live-cell administrations, the S. cerevisiae RNA concentration in the mouse cecum was significantly higher than that of the control and the DSS treatment group, which suggests that the boulardii-03 yeast has a superior intestinal survival rate. Thus this opens up the new prospects for the into the development of fermented probiotic food using S. cerevisiae boulardii-03 strain as a starter culture.Key words :

  • Review l 2022-05-31

    Current Status and Future Prospects of the Insect Industry as an Alternative Protein Source for Animal Feed

    Jung-Hyun Nam , Duri Kim , Ji-Yong Hyun , Hee-Jung Jin , Yun-Sang Choi , Jin-Ho Cho , Byoung Kon Lee , and Ji-Yeon Chun

    To study the domestic and foreign status of insects in animal feed, we summarized the productivity and possibility related to the utilization of insects as alternative protein feed in livestock production and aquaculture. Insects are reported to have high nutritional value and are rich source of proteins, amino acids, unsaturated fatty acids, vitamins, minerals, and fibers. In addition, they are low-cost and environmentally friendly, and can replace imported expensive resources such as fish and soybean meal. Furthermore, insects can be fed animal manure and food waste, including kitchen and agricultural waste, for breeding. These factors make insects an attractive source of animal feed. Since 2011, research on insects as products for animal feed increased rapidly but has recently shown a steady decline. However, the insect industry is steadily developing. Moreover, the ‘Control of Livestock and Fish Feed Act’ is being revised to revitalize the insect industry, and insect-based feed products are being released. This review will provide the current status of insects as an alternative resource in feed products, and ongoing research and projects. We will further discuss the prospect of the insect industry with these inputs.Key words :

  • Article l 2022-05-31

    Determination of the Protein Quality of Low-Molecular Weight Water-Soluble Chicken Breast Powder by a Protein Digestibility Corrected Amino Acid Score (PDCAAS) Analysis

    Jin A Lee , Min Ju Kim , Mi-Rae Shin , Seong-Soo Roh , Jung-Bok Lee , Ye hei Seo , Hyun Gyu Choi , and Hae-Jin Park

    This study was conducted to evaluate the protein quality of low-molecular weight water-soluble chicken breast powder (LWCP) by the protein digestibility corrected amino acid score (PDCAAS), which is a combination of the chemical score of the limiting amino acid multiplied by the true digestibility of the protein. The LWCP was hydrolyzed using by foodpro® alkaline protease for 4 hours at 55°C and was then further hydrolyzed with a combination of three enzymes (prozyme 2000P, bromelain, and papain) for 2 hours. Gel permeation chromatography (GPC) was used to measure the molecular weight distribution of the LWCP, isolated soy protein (ISP), and whey protein isolate (WPI). The protein quality of the LWCP was evaluated and compared with vegetable protein (ISP) and two animal proteins (WPI and casein). The protein quality was evaluated using a rodent bioassay of the protein digestibility and the amino acid composition of the LWCP was determined via high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). Test diets were supplied for five days after an adaptation period of 4 days, to an animal model comprising 21∼28 days old SD rats with an average body weight of 70∼80 g. During the balance period, the nitrogen contents in the feces were assayed. As a result of estimating the weighted average molecular weight using GPC, the LWCP was observed to have a smaller value (Mw 675) than those of the ISP (Mw 995) and WPI (Mw 6,666). The protein efficiency ratio and net protein ratio of the LWCP were 2.9 and 4.9, respectively. The PDCAAS value of the LWCP was 128.8% which was significantly higher than those of the ISP and WPI. These results suggest that LWCP appears to be a promising protein source with good biological values and digestibility.Key words :

  • Article l 2022-02-28

    Inhibitory Effect of Hot-Water Extract of Gryllus bimaculatus on Inflammatory Responses and NLRP3 Inflammasome Activation in Macrophages

    Bomi Park , So Yeon Kim, Young Nam Kim, Sung Don Yang, Wongyun Seo, Seung Yun Han, and Yung Choon Yoo

    In this study, we investigated the inhibitory effect of the hot-water extract of Gryllus bimaculatus (HW-GB) on the inflammatory responses of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells and bone marrowderived macrophages (BMDM), and partially demonstrated the intracellular mechanisms related to the anti-inflammatory activity of HW-GB. Treatment with HW-GB significantly inhibited the production of nitric oxide (NO) and pro-inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages in a dose-dependent manner. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis revealed that the expression of TNF-α, IL-6, and iNOS (an NO synthase) mRNAs prominently decreased after the HW-GB treatment. In addition, it was shown that HW-GB inhibited phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) such as extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK), jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and p38 in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. In the analysis of IL-1b production from BMDM stimulated with LPS+ATP, HW-BG significantly reduced IL-1b production in a dose-dependent manner through the downregulation of the expression of NOD-like receptor pyrin domain-containing protein 3 (NLRP3) and apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing caspase recruitment domain (ASC) molecules. In the confocal analysis, it was also observed that HW-GB inhibited co-localization of both NLRP3 and caspase-1, and NLRP3 and ASC in LPS+ATP-stimulated BMDM. Collectively, HW-GB has a strong anti-inflammatory activity and hence can be considered an effective functional food candidate for the prevention and treatment of inflammation-related immune diseases.Key words :

  • The purpose of this study was to compare the physicochemical properties of low-moisture meat analog (LMMA) and high-moisture meat analog (HMMA) at varying moisture content levels. The low-moisture extrusion conditions were moisture content of 25, 30, or 35%, barrel temperature of 150°C, and screw speed of 250 rpm. The high-moisture extrusion conditions were moisture content of 55, 60, 65, or 70%, barrel temperature of 160°C, and screw speed of 150 rpm. The integrity index, chewiness, and cutting strength decreased and water holding capacity, nitrogen solubility index (NSI), springiness, and cohesiveness of LMMA increased with increasing moisture content. The degree of texturization of LMMA increased at 25∼30% moisture content and decreased at 30∼35% moisture content. The integrity index, springiness, cohesiveness, chewiness, and the degree of texturization of HMMA decreased and the NSI and cutting strength increased with increasing moisture content. HMMA had a higher integrity index, springiness, cohesiveness, chewiness, cutting strength, degree of texturization, and a lower NSI than LMMA. In conclusion, meat analog produced by the high-moisture extrusion process had a better fibrous structure compared to LMMA.Key words :

  • Article l 2021-12-31

    Physicochemical and Sensory Characteristics of Domestic Winter Radishes (Raphonus sativus L.) According to Cultivars

    Juhee Kim , Sung-Soo Park , Woonseo Baik, Gyeonghye Yoon, Eui-Cheol Shin, Ki-Bae Hong, and Youngseung Lee

    This study was conducted to examine the physicochemical and sensory characteristics of winter radishes according to the cultivar variety (R1∼R3: Jeju island; R4: Jeollanam-do). The radishes were treated either in raw or blanched conditions. The general components and DPPH radical scavenging activity of the samples were measured, while volatile compounds and odor patterns were analyzed using an electronic nose. The textural properties of the samples were also measured by a texture analyzer. A total of 13 sensory attributes of the samples were profiled by seven trained descriptive panelists. The antioxidant activity was evaluated by assessing the DPPH radical scavenging activity, which was found to be highest in R1. Eighteen kinds of volatile compounds were identified, and methanethiol which represents the unique scent of radish, was the most common in all the samples. Texture analysis showed that R1 was the softest in both its raw and blanched states. The descriptive analysis showed no significant difference between raw samples, but significant variations existed in the crunchiness of the samples in the blanched state. The intensity of sensory properties increased with the molecular weight of the radish extracts. Overall, our results suggest that the quality characteristics of winter radishes vary across cultivars and this needs to be considered when processing or developing products using winter radishes.Key words :

  • Article l 2022-04-30

    Quality Characteristics of Plant-Based Proteins Used in Meat Analogs

    Sun Young Cho and Gi-Hyung Ryu

    This study aims to investigate the physicochemical and functional properties of promising plant-based proteins used for meat analogs processing. The plant-based proteins were isolated soy protein (ISP), gluten, pea proteins (Pea 1, 2) which are the different manufacturers, and isolated rice proteins (Rice 1, 2), and mung bean protein. The highest water absorption capacity (WAC) and oil absorption capacity (OAC) were observed in and pea protein (Pea 1), while the lowest WAC and OAC were seen in rice protein (Rice 2). Pea 1 had the highest emulsifying activity (EA) and emulsion stability (ES), whereas Rice 2 indicated in the lowest EA and ES. The highest nitrogen solubility index (NSI) was seen in ISP, while Rice 2 had the lowest NSI. Pea 1 had the higher NSI compare with Pea 2. Mung bean protein had the highest the antioxidant properties with DPPH radical scavenging activity and total phenolic content among the plant-based proteins. Pea 2 also had the higher antioxidant properties than Pea 1. Our study revealed that the kinds of plant-based proteins had the different physicochemical and functional properties, which could influence their quality characteristics of raw materials for meat analogs.Key words :

  • Article l 2022-03-31

    Effect of Yeast Content on the Physicochemical Properties of Low-Moisture Extruded Meat Analog

    Yung-Hee Jeon , Bon-Jae Gu , and Gi-Hyung Ryu

    This study was conducted to determine the effect of yeast content on the physicochemical properties of low-moisture extruded meat analogs. Isolated soy protein (50%), wheat gluten (40%), and corn starch (10%) were mixed to form a base formulation, and then yeast (0% to 50%) was added. The extrusion parameters were barrel temperature (150°C), moisture content (40%), and screw speed (250 rpm). The water holding capacity, texture profile, integrity index, nitrogen solubility index, and amino acid profile were analyzed. The meat analog with a yeast content of 50% was not texturized. The water holding capacity, elasticity, and cohesiveness decreased as yeast content increased from 0% to 40%. The chewiness and integrity index increased with the yeast content increasing from 0% to 30%, but decreased when yeast content went over 40%. The nitrogen solubility index and the DPPH radical scavenging activity increased with the increase in yeast content. Based on these results, it was concluded that 30% yeast content was optimum for texturization.Key words :

  • Article l 2022-01-31

    Determination of Vitamin K in Korean Processed Food and Restaurant Meal

    Yejin Kim , Keono Kim, Keup-rae Kim, Jun Ho Kim, Donghui Lee, Siyong Kwon, Junsoo Lee, Keum-ll Jang, Byung Hee Kim, and Jeehye Sung

    In the Korean food composition database, there is a lack of reliable analytical data on vitamin K1 (phylloquinone) and vitamin K2 (menaquinone). This study sought to investigate the phylloquinone and menaquinone contents of commonly consumed foods in Korea. The vitamin K content of the sample was determined by solvent extraction and enzyme extraction, followed by reversed-phase liquid chromatography using post-column derivatization and fluorescence detection. The analytical method validation parameters, including quality control charts, a reference material, and precision, were determined to ensure the validity of the vitamin K analysis. A total of 46 key foods and 45 latest food consumption trends for commonly consumed Korean foods were selected based on dietary records. A relatively higher amount of vitamin K1 was found in plant-derived foods such as grilled seaweed (913.87 μg/100 g), Korean lettuce kimchi (228.23 μg/100 g), gom-chewi pickle (488.57 μg/100 g), leaf mustard kimchi (128.78 μg/100 g), and green laver (745.12 μg/100 g) compared to other foods. On the other hand, vitamin K2 was abundant in animal-based foods including gizzard (18.23 μg/100 g), boiled egg yolk (18.28 μg/100 g), grilled pork belly (127.29 μg/100 g), and beef rectum (14.79 μg/100 g). The present study provides reliable nutritional information for the development of a Korean food composition database.Key words :

  • Article l 2021-12-31

    Alcoholic Hepatotoxicity Inhibitory Effect Using Heat-Killed Lactic Acid Bacteria

    Hyo-Seok Chae , Hyang Hyun Cho, Woo Seung Song, and Kwontack Hwang

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of heat-killed lactic acid bacteria on acute alcoholic liver disease and alcoholic hangover. Histologic analysis exhibited no change except in the ethanol-treated group, but the EtOH+heat-killed Lactobacillus plantarum high dose-treated group (P<0.01) showed a significant change in the fatty granules in hepatocytes. Similarly, the positive control group (P<0.01) and the EtOH+HLPH (heat-killed L. plantarum high dose) group (P<0.05) showed significant difference in the hepatic telangiectasis score. Aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activities were significantly decreased in the EtOH+HLPH group (P<0.001 and P<0.01 respectively). Inhibition of inflammation was assessed through cytokine expression. IL-1β mRNA expression was significantly inhibited in all treatment groups, but IL-6 was inhibited only in the heat-sterilized lactic acid bacteria group (P<0.05). While measuring the changes in the amount of ethanol and acetaldehyde in the blood before and after ethanol administration, it was observed that the heat-killed lactic acid bacteria group effectively decreased after ethanol administration (P<0.001). In addition, it was confirmed that alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and acetaldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) activities were significantly increased in the heat-killed lactic acid bacteria group (P<0.001). Therefore, it was observed that heat-treated and sterilized lactic acid bacteria like live bacteria had a significant effect on acute alcoholic liver disease.Key words :

  • Article l 2022-01-31

    Effect of Persimmon Extracts on High-Fat Diet-Induced Lipid Accumulation and Liver Damage

    Jin Yong Kang , Uk Lee , Jong Min Kim, Seon Kyeong Park, Min Ji Kim, Jong Hyun Moon, Hyo Lim Lee, Hye Rin Jeong, Min Ji Go, and Ho Jin Heo

    This study was performed to investigate the effects of persimmon (Diospyros kaki) on a high-fat diet (HFD)-induced lipid accumulation and lipotoxicity and in the liver. The persimmon extract (DKE) was orally administered at 50 and 100 mg/kg body weight with an HFD for 8 weeks in mice. The weight gain, including the weight of liver and adipose tissues, was suppressed in the DKE groups compared with the HFD group. In addition, improved glucose tolerance was observed in the DKE groups. The results of serum biomarkers indicate that DKE could inhibit liver injury and dyslipidemia. In addition, it was confirmed that oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction were improved in the DKE groups. DKE suppressed lipid accumulation by inhibiting AMPK phosphorylation in the liver. In addition, with the inhibition of JNK phosphorylation by DKE, insulin resistance, inflammation, and apoptosis were suppressed. The metabolite analysis of liver tissue using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC Q-TOF/MS) showed that DKE affected metabolite composition in the liver tissue. In particular, it was confirmed that DKE was involved in liver lipid metabolism. DKE reduced phosphatidylcholines (PCs) and lysophosphatidylcholines (lysoPCs), and their reduction was closely related to the reduction of lipotoxicity.Key words :

  • The objective of this study was to investigate the molecular biological efficacy of aqueous extract of Anthriscus sylvestris leaves (AE-ASL) in alleviating inflammation and improving articular cartilage in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rat experimental models with carrageen-induced paw edema and destabilization of the medial meniscus (DMM). In the carrageen-induced paw edema model, AE-ASL significantly inhibited the protein expression levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in the experimental groups (orally administered 50, 100, 200 mg/kg of body weight for weeks) compared to the control group (1% carrageenan-induced paw edema model in rats). In the DMM, AE-ASL (50, 100, 200 mg/kg of body weight for 8 weeks) was orally administered daily and the normal and placebo groups were orally administered drinking water daily. AE-ASL significantly inhibited the protein expression levels of matrix metalloproteinase-1, -3, -13 (MMP-1, MMP-3, MMP-13) and disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin motifs 4 (ADAMTS-4) in the experimental groups compared to the groups administered drinking water. Moreover, it was confirmed at each serum level, that the amounts of aggrecan and collagen type II increased in the experimental group compared with the groups administered drinking water. Based on these results, it was confirmed that AE-ASL was effective in alleviating inflammation and improving joints in in vivo experiments. Taken together, the results suggest that AE-ASL may be used as a health functional food for the improvement of articular cartilage.Key words :

  • Obesity has become a prevalent health problem worldwide. In this study, the phytochemicals in guava branches were identified by using liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-Q-TOF-MS). Also, the anti-obesity and anti-inflammatory activities of guava branch extracts were investigated in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and RAW264.7 macrophages. The guava branches were extracted with 100% ethanol (E100), and water at 95°C or 80°C. A total of 15 compounds, including catechin, gallic acid, and quercetin, were tentatively identified in the guava branches. The cell viability was determined by a 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide assay and no cytotoxic effect was observed for all tested extracts in both cell lines. In addition, the E100 extract greatly suppressed lipid accumulation in the 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Treatment with E100 extract showed the most effective inhibition of nitric oxide (NO) production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated macrophages. We also found that E100 extract markedly decreased NO production by about 78% compared to the LPS-only treated group in the co-culture system of adipocytes and macrophages. Therefore, these results suggest that guava branch extracts may be useful for preventing obesity.Key words :

  • Article l 2022-02-28

    A Study on the Meal Patterns of Obese Children Using Photo Analysis Based on the Korean Food Guide

    Hye Bin Yoon , Jin Seon Song , Youngshin Han, and Kyung A Lee

    This study analyzed the eating patterns of 96 elementary school students who participated in the Busan nutrition camp in August 2020. For the food intake survey, the subjects were provided with the same plate, and the names of the food and pictures taken before and after the meal were provided. Food intake was analyzed by serving size (1 serving size) and representative nutritional value of representative foods for each of the six food groups in the recommended menu. The subjects of the survey were 16.7% normal weight, 30.2% overweight, and 53.1% obese. Children of normal weight showed significantly (PKey words :

  • Article l 2021-12-31

    Analysis of the Sensory Characteristics of Broccoli from Jeju Island & Its Protein Fractions

    Chanthorn Sang , Jie Rong, Yubin Jang, Ki-Bae Hong, Chang-Sook Kim, Sun-Bo Ko, Eui-Cheol Shin, Youngseung Lee, and Sung-Soo Park

    In this study, we sought to identify the substances involved in the sensory and texture quality characteristics of each variety of Jeju broccoli in order to improve their processing characteristics. First, a purification process was performed on the extracts from the broccoli. Separately, the general components and functional characteristics of each cultivar and part of the broccoli were analyzed and a descriptive analysis was performed. Among the general components, there was a significant difference between the broccoli varieties with regard to the moisture content of the flower buds and the crude fat content in the stems. In the analysis of antioxidant activity, New-tamnagreen (B1) showed significantly higher activity in all areas compared with other varieties. The electronic nose analysis showed that each variety had different unique fragrance components. The descriptive analysis revealed significant differences in the green color of buds and stems between varieties. B1 had the lowest value in buds and SK3-085 (B2) in stems. As a result of principal component analysis (PCA), B1 and B2 showed a close relationship with similar texture characteristics, flower aroma, and sweetness, and the Nokje (B3) showed negative taste-related characteristics. In the descriptive analysis and PCA of the fractions obtained through the purification process of sensory components for each broccoli variety, B1 showed significant characteristics related to flavor and taste components, but no significant variations were observed in the other characteristics.Key words :

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October 2023
Vol.52 No.10

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