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JKFN Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition



Online ISSN 2288-5978

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  • Article l 2024-01-31

    Protective and Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Avocado and Soybean Unsaponifiables in Primary Rat Chondrocytes and an MIA-Induced Osteoarthritis Model

    Wonhee Cho , Minhee Lee , Geum Duck Park, Byong Ho Yoo, Ki Nam Kim, and Ok-Kyung Kim

    We investigated whether avocado and soybean unsaponifiables (ASU) could alleviate the symptoms of osteoarthritis, including the degradation of articular cartilage, inflammation, and apoptosis, using H2O2- or LPS-treated primary chondrocytes and a monoiodoacetate (MIA)-induced rat model of osteoarthritis. ASU treatment prevented cell death and suppressed matrix degradation by increasing the levels of aggrecan, collagen type I, collagen type Ⅱ, TIMP-1, and TIMP-3, but decreasing the levels of MMP-3 and MMP-13 in the H2O2-treated primary chondrocytes. Furthermore, ASU treatment suppressed apoptosis pathways and the activation of inflammation in the LPS-treated primary chondrocytes. In rats with MIA-induced osteoarthritis, dietary supplementation with ASU effectively reduced histological and architectural changes in the knee joint. Additionally, dietary supplementation with ASU stimulated the mRNA expressions of aggrecan, collagen type I, collagen type II, TIMP-1, and TIMP-3, but suppressed MMP mRNA expressions in articular cartilage. Also, serum levels of pro-inflammatory mediators and the levels of proteins related to inflammatory and apoptosis pathways, were decreased by dietary ASU supplementation in our MIA-induced osteoarthritis model. Based on these findings, we suggest that ASU can be considered a potential treatment for osteoarthritis.Key words : avocado, soybean, osteoarthritis, chondrocytes

  • The potential of Rumohra adiantiformis, a type of Polypodiales, as a natural material was studied using a range of physiological activity studies. Rumohra adiantiformis was extracted using hot water or 70% ethanol. Total polyphenol content was higher in the ethanol extract (RUE) than in the hot water extract (RUD). In addition, the electron-donating abilities and ABTS radical scavenging activities of the two extracts were similar to those of the control group, confirming their excellent antioxidant effects. RAW 264.7 cell viability studies showed the two extracts were non-toxic and inhibited nitric oxide by >79% at 500 μg/mL. Furthermore, RUD and RUE concentration-dependently inhibited the protein and mRNA expressions of iNOS and COX-2. Therefore, the study shows that the hot water and 70% ethanol extracts of Rumohra adiantiformis have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties and suggests that Rumohra adiantiformis is a potentially useful functional natural material.Key words : anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, natural material, Rumohra adiantiformis

  • Platelets play fundamental roles in hemostasis and thrombosis, and antiplatelet drugs effectively reduce thrombosis in patients with cardiovascular disease. However, various side effects have been reported, and although various antiplatelet drugs have been developed, mortality rates of cardiovascular diseases have not decreased. Therefore, new antiplatelet drugs with fewer side effects are urgently required. This study examined whether Tenebrio molitor extract inhibits platelet aggregation by regulating integrin αIIb/β3 and its associated signaling molecules. Tenebrio molitor extract inhibited αIIb/β3 activation by regulating vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein, phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase, Akt, and glycogen synthase kinase-3α/β. In summary, Tenebrio molitor extract exhibited strong antiplatelet effects and appears to be a potential therapeutic for preventing platelet-related thrombosis and cardiovascular disease.Key words : Tenebrio molitor, integrin αIIb/β3, fibronectin adhesion, clot retraction

  • Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common chronic liver disease and a well-known symptom of metabolic disease. In the present study, the effect of the water extract of Phlomis umborsa Turcz. roots (PUW) on lipid accumulation was investigated using free fatty acid (FFA) induced HepG2 cells. Intracellular triglyceride levels were reduced significantly by PUW in these cells. Also, PUW upregulated the mRNA expression of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), which was reduced by FFA treatment. In addition, the expression of sterol regulatory element binding protein-1, a major transcription factor for lipogenesis, was suppressed, while the expression of carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1, a major enzyme for β-oxidation was increased. Furthermore, antioxidant enzymes downregulated by FFA were significantly upregulated by PUW. These results suggest that PUW beneficially attenuates NAFLD by upregulating AMPK activity and inhibiting oxidative stress.Key words : Phlomis umbrosa Turcz., non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, HepG2, AMPK, antioxidant enzyme

  • Article l 2024-01-31

    Gut Environment Improving Effects of Galactooligosaccharide Bioconverted by Bacillus circulans

    Min Seung Park , Na Ri Kim , and Kwang-Soon Shin

    In a previous study, we reported that galactooligosaccharides (GOS, NeoGOS-P70TM) bioconverted by Bacillus circulans potently improved the clinical symptoms of ulcerative colitis in a mouse model. Here, to elucidate the therapeutic mechanism, we investigated the effect of GOS on the gut environment using human goblet (LS174T) and epithelial cells (Caco-2). Treatment of LS174T with GOS induced potent proliferation and the mRNA expressions of MUC2 and TFF-3, which are related to the production of mucin and tight junction (TJ) proteins. Also, a CLSM-based immunocytochemical study showed that GOS increased mucin production in a dose-dependent manner. To investigate the reinforcing effect of GOS and GOS-supplemented LS174T culture supernatants (containing TFF-3) on gut barrier integrity, we evaluated the mRNA expressions of TJ components, trans-epithelial electric resistance, and FITC-dextran monolayer permeability. The mRNA expression levels of TJ-related genes, such as ZO-1, Occludin, and Claudin-1, were significantly increased by GOS treatment. On the other hand, treatment remarkably enhanced the TEER value of Caco-2 cells and dose-dependently reduced dextran flux. We concluded that GOS stimulates the expressions of MUC2 and TFF-3 in goblet cells and reinforces gut TJ barrier integrity.Key words : galactooligosaccharides, gut environment, tight junction, LS174T, Caco-2

  • Article l 2024-01-31

    Optimization of the Extraction Conditions of Phytosterols from Peanuts Using the Response Surface Methodology

    Mirae Hong , Huijin Heo, Chido Wee, Byung Hee Kim, In-Hwan Kim, and Junsoo Lee

    Peanuts, other nuts and seeds are rich in phytosterols. In this study, the extraction conditions of phytosterols from peanuts (Arachis hypogaea L.) were optimized using a response surface methodology (RSM) constructed by Box-Behnken design. The effects of varying the amount of 60% potassium hydroxide (X1: 5∼15 mL), saponification time at 75°C (X2: 15∼55 min), and final ethanol concentration (X3: 25∼45%) on the three major phytosterol contents in peanuts were evaluated to optimize the extraction and saponification steps using RSM. In general, the analysis of variance showed that the model appeared to be adequate, with no significant lack of fit, and with a satisfactory coefficient of determination. Based on the ridge analysis, the optimum conditions found were: X1, 10.76∼11.50; X2, 42.82∼45.95 at 75°C; and X3, 43.23∼43.70. Under the optimized conditions, the experimental values agreed with the values predicted by ridge analysis. Thus, the optimum conditions for the extraction of phytosterol from the peanut samples were developed using RSM and ridge analysis. It is believed that these results can be applied not only to peanuts but also to various other nuts and seeds with similar matrices and will hence be useful for the development of a functional food composition database of phytosterols.Key words : phytosterol, response surface methodology, optimization, saponification, peanut

  • Article l 2024-01-31

    Development of a Method for the Simultaneous Analysis of Gallic Acid and Caffeine in Health Functional Foods Containing Pu-erh Tea Extract

    Se-Yun Lee , Hee-Sun Jeong , Mi-Young Lee , Kyu-Heon Kim , Jeong-Ho Choi , Kwang-Il Kwon , and Hye-Young Lee

    This study was conducted to establish a test method for the simultaneous analysis of gallic acid and caffeine in preparations containing Pu-erh tea extract. Gallic acid and caffeine were extracted with distilled water and analyzed at 280 nm using formic acid solution and acetonitrile containing formic acid by liquid chromatography. The developed analytical method was validated by evaluating several parameters, namely, selectivity, linearity, limit of detection, limit of quantification, accuracy, and repeatability. Accuracies of gallic acid and caffeine recoveries ranged from 94.5 to 105.9%. Repeatabilities, assessed using standard deviations at a gallic acid content of 24.0 mg/g and a caffeine content of 40,843 mg/kg, were 1.4∼1.9% and 1.5∼2.1%, respectively. Interlaboratory reproducibility had a relative standard deviation of 5.0%. Review of the applicability of the developed method using media containing various amounts of fat, protein, and carbohydrate confirmed that it enables the simultaneous quantification of gallic acid and caffeine.Key words : health functional food, Pu-erh (Camelia sinensis L.) tea extract, gallic acid

  • Article l 2024-01-31

    Comparative Study of the Composition and Quality Characteristics of Broccoli Varieties from Jeju Island by Drying Methods

    Chanthorn Sang , Jin Yeong Kim , Ki-Bae Hong , Eui-Cheol Shin , Youngseung Lee , and Sung-Soo Park

    Three new varieties of broccoli developed in Jeju Island, New-Tamlagreen (B2), Hallagreen (B3), and Samdagreen (B4), and the broccoli variety SK3-085 (B1), which is cultivated in large quantities in Korea, were harvested after cultivation. Bioactivity and nutritional composition analyses were conducted on each variety to choose a suitable variety and process. Composition analysis showed that B4 had highest protein content and antioxidant capacity measurements confirmed that B3 and B4 had similar or higher antioxidant activities than B1 or B2. HPLC showed that B4 broccoli had the highest sulforaphane content. Regarding processing methods, samples dried at 70°C and 105°C had the highest antioxidant activities, and freeze-drying resulted in less antioxidant activity and lower total polyphenol contents than the other drying methods.Key words : Jeju broccoli, sulforaphane, solubility, processing method, antioxidant

  • Article l 2024-01-31

    Fermentation Characteristics of Cheonggukjang Prepared from Non-Germinated Pungsannamul-Soybeans

    Eun Ah Sim , Eun-Gyung Mun , Boung-Jun Oh , and Seung-Il Jeong

    In this study, Cheonggukjang was manufactured from Pungsannamul-soybeans discarded because they did not germinate. Pungsannamul-soybeans are a representative variety used for bean sprout production in Jeonju. Pungsannamul is a small-grained variety compared to Daewon (7∼14 g vs. 25 g per 100 grains). Cheonggukjang was prepared from Daewon-soybeans (DS) and non-germinated Pungsannamul-soybeans (NPS) by inoculating pre-culture solutions with Bacillus subtilis KCTC3135. Amino nitrogen testing, which is used as an indicator of soybean fermentation, showed NPS had a value 1.75 times that of DS. Furthermore, the proteases activity of NPS was 1.2 times that of DS, and the total phenolic and total flavonoid contents of NPS were 121.89±4.74 and, 64.26±7.41 μg/g, respectively, which were significantly higher than the 111.97±5.24 and 32.64±7.12 μg/g of DS. In addition, the DPPH radical scavenging activity of NPS was greater than that of DS (106.24±4.69% vs. 91.80±4.24%). Isoflavones, in the form of glycosides, were decomposed into aglycones. Total aglycone contents was higher in NPS than DS (285.85 vs. 244.14 μg/g), and glutamic acid, aspartic acid, alanine, and glycine levels, which affect taste, were 1.6, 3.9, 1.23, and 1.49 times higher, respcetively, in NPS than DS. These results indicate that the fermentation characteristics of NPS are better than those of DS, suggesting non-germinated Pungsannamul-soybeans of low industrial value can be utilized to produce high added-value products.Key words : non-germinated, Pungsannamul-soybean, fermentation, Cheonggukjang, antioxidant activity

  • Article l 2024-01-31

    Quality Characteristics of Dipping Sauce Containing Blended Kimchi

    Yu Na Song , Se Young Jung , Sin Young Park , Soo Bin Kim , Ji Yoon Kim , Jeongah Park , and Mi Sook Cho

    This study evaluated the physicochemical properties and consumer preferences of dipping sauce containing different amounts of blended kimchi (0%, 20%, 30%, 40%, and 50%). As the amount of kimchi increased, the L-value decreased, the a-value increased, and the b-value showed no significant changes. The pH was the highest in the CON (0% kimchi) sample, but salinity was the lowest. Moisture content increased with kimchi content, while sweetness and viscosity decreased. Vitamin C content increased with kimchi content. Consumer surveys revealed that most respondents liked kimchi but consumed it less than three to four times a week. Consumers expressed a strong intention to purchase kimchi processed foods, especially sauces, and believed kimchi containing processed foods are rich in vitamins and minerals. In addition, they emphasized that calorie and sugar content influenced their food choices. The K30 (30% kimchi) sample was favored during sensory evaluations, while the K40 and K50 samples received lower scores. These results demonstrate that it is possible to manufacture a kimchi dipping sauce with enhanced vitamin C content and high acceptability and that a kimchi blending ratio of around 30% is most suitable.Key words : kimchi, kimchi processed foods, dipping sauce, sensory evaluation, quality characteristics

  • This study was conducted to investigate the quality characteristics, bioactive compound contents, and antioxidant activities of cookies containing 0, 2, 4, 6, or 8% of freeze-dried tomato powder rather than wheat flour. Moisture contents tended to increase with the amount of tomato powder added. However, ash contents and cookie hardness were similar in the control and 2 to 8% tomato powder groups. Furthermore, adding tomato powder increased sugar contents and total acidities, reduced cookie pH, lightness, and yellowness, but increased cookie redness and browning indexes in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, tomato powder dose-dependently increased total polyphenol, total flavonoids and lycopene contents. Finally, antioxidant activity was significantly and dose-dependently increased by tomato powder. These results, show that replacing wheat flour with tomato powder in cookies increases antioxidant activity and has a positive health benefits.Key words : tomato, cookies, carotenoids, antioxidant

  • Article l 2024-01-31

    Physicochemical Characteristics of Low-Moisture Extruded Plant-Based Meat Analogs at Different Laver (Pyropia yezoensis) Levels

    Jihui Sin , Namki Hwang , Yoseob Han , Bon-Jae Gu , Taek-Jeong Nam , Youn Hee Choi , and Gi-Hyung Ryu

    This study was conducted to determine the effect of laver (Pyropia yezoensis) content on the physicochemical properties and antioxidant activity of extruded plant-based low-moisture meat analogs (LMMAs). Isolated soy protein (50%), wheat gluten (40%), and corn starch (10%) were mixed as base formulation, and then laver (0% to 40%) was added. The extrusion parameters were barrel temperature 150°C, moisture content 40%, and screw speed 250 rpm. The expansion air cell sizes of plant-based meat analogs decreased as the proportion of laver increased. On increasing laver content, the water holding capacity of LMMA decreased, while chewiness and vertical and parallel cutting strengths increased to a laver content of 30%. Increasing the laver content also increased DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activities. These results show that the addition of laver to a plant-based meat analog increases antioxidant and that the optimal laver content is 30%.Key words : seaweed, laver, plant-based meat analog, physicochemical properties, antioxidant properties

  • Article l 2024-01-31

    Anti-Oxidant and Elastase and Collagenase Inhibitory Activity Effects of Chionanthus retusa Leaf Extracts and Their Evaluation in Cosmetics

    Yu-Ri Son , So-Jin Park , Yeon-Ju Park , Hye-Jin Park , Jong-Seok Kim , and Young-Je Cho

    In this study, the anti-oxidant and anti-wrinkle activities and emulsion cosmetic-assosiated stability characteristics (pH, colorimetric, viscosity, patch test, and sensual properties) of Chionanthus retusa leaf (CRL) extracts were evaluated. Total phenolics contents of CRL hot water and 60% ethanol extracts were 17.85 and 36.66 mg GAE/g, respectively. At 200 μg/mL hot water and ethanol extracts had 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activities of 89.20 and 91.52%, respectively, and at 600 μg/mL had elastase inhibitions of 79.42 and 99.63%, and collagenase inhibitions of 32.29 and 59.03%, respectively. These results confirmed the anti-oxidant and anti-wrinkle properties of the active ingredients in CRL extracts. After four weeks of storage, CRL extracts had no effects on the pH, color, and viscosity of 10 types of cosmetics patch testing for skin reactions revealed no abnormality. Sensory evaluations on the color, scent, spreading, absorption, and overall preferences of cosmetics showed men and women scored the hot water extract better for color and overall preference but found the ethanol extract better for skin absorption. The study indicates that CRL extracts have anti-oxidant activities and stabilities suitable for use in cosmetics.Key words : Chionanthus retusa, anti-oxidant, anti-wrinkle, stability, cosmetics

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January 2024
Vol.53 No.1

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