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JKFN Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition



Online ISSN 2288-5978

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  • Article l 2024-05-31

    Pinus sylvestris L. Ameliorates H2O2 Oxidative Stress in U2OS Cells and MIA-Induced Osteoarthritis

    Mi-Rae Shin , Jeong Won Choi , Min Ju Kim , Hui Yeon An , Ji Heon Yu , Il Ha Jeong , Wang Keun Yoo , Bold Sharavyn , and Seong-Soo Roh

    This study investigated the pharmacological impact of the Pinus sylvestris L. water extract (PS) on hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced oxidative stress in the human osteosarcoma cell line U2OS and a monosodium iodoacetate (MIA)-induced osteoarthritis model in rats. A MitoSoxTM indicator was used to measure mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, while mitochondrial integrity was assessed using MitoTrackerTM. Moreover, we assessed oxidative stress-related markers, including sirtuin 1 (Sirt1), metal-responsive transcription factor 1 (MTF1), and 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) using immunohistochemistry. We performed serum analysis and western blotting in vivo. The cell viability of U2OS cells was increased in a concentration-dependent manner, independent of H2O2 treatment. PS dramatically reduced the accumulation of mitochondrial ROS, while simultaneously reversing the decreased MitoTrackerTM levels. Additionally, both Sirt1 and MTF1 intensities were significantly elevated, whereas 4-HNE intensity noticeably decreased. In the animal experiment, the MIA treatment resulted in a reduction of hindpaw weight distribution changes. However, PS pretreatment significantly reversed this reduction. The serum levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin (IL)-6, and IL-1β were significantly decreased compared to the control group. The control group, treated with only MIA, exhibited increased levels of three enzymes: Matrix metalloproteinase 13 (MMP-13), which degrades collagen or proteoglycan, and MMP-2 and MMP-3, which degrade the non-collagen matrix components of the joints. However, the PS treatment significantly inhibited the levels of the enzymes except MMP-3. In conclusion, these results suggest that PS alleviated oxidative stress and regulated inflammatory cytokines and the expression of MMPs.Key words : Pinus sylvestris, osteoarthritis, monosodium iodoacetate, oxidative stress, inflammation

  • This study was conducted to elucidate the immuno-stimulating activities of deer antler (Cervi Parvum Cornu) extract fermented by Cordyceps militaris. Fermented antler extract (FAE) had relatively high content of total sugar (29.79%), uronic acid (5.56%), sulfated glycosaminoglycan (2.21%), and sialic acid (0.40%) compared to the non-fermented extract. FAE prepared with C. militaris showed strong anti-complientary activity in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, in the absence of Ca ions, it was confirmed from the results of cross-linked immunoelectrophoresis using anti-human C3 and the results of an anti-complient activity experiment, that the activation of the complient systi by FAE occurs through both the classical and alternative pathways. FAE augmented the production of various cytokines, such as interleukin (IL)-6, IL-12, and tumor necrosis factor-α by peritoneal macrophages. Furthermore, the intravenous administration of FAE enhanced natural killer (NK) cell cytotoxicity against YAC-1 lymphoma. Further, the oral administration of FAE not only induced an increase in the level of cytokines in the serum but also significantly improved NK cell-mediated cytotoxicity against tumor cells in a dose-dependent manner. From the above results, it was confirmed that FAE can strongly stimulate the innate immune systi. Therefore, it is believed that FAE has great potential to be developed as a functional ingredient beneficial to human health.Key words : fermented deer antler, Cordyceps militaris, immuno-stimulation, macrophages, NK cells

  • In this study, we aimed to extract valuable components from Aeonium sedifolium. Extraction using 50% ethanol yielded higher levels of total phenolic compound and resulted in higher inhibition of hyaluronidase compared to water extraction. Cytotoxicity assays on Raw 264.7 cells revealed no adverse effects at concentrations below 50 and 20 μg/mL in water and ethanol extracts, respectively. Furthermore, the exhibited concentration-dependent inhibition of nitric oxide production, with microwave extraction (ME) dionstrating superior inhibition compared to conventional extraction (CE). Protein expression levels of cyclooxygenase 2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase were also suppressed in both ME and CE extracts, with ME showing greater efficacy than CE. Additionally, inflammatory cytokines including tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, monocyte chioattractant protein-1, and prostaglandin E synthase 2 were suppressed, with ME exhibiting higher inhibition rates. These findings highlight the anti-inflammatory activity of A. sedifolium extracts, with ME proving to be more effective than conventional methods.Key words : Aeonium sedifolium, microwave, antioxidant, anti-inflammation, cosmetic

  • Article l 2024-05-31

    Improvement and Validation of an Analytical Method for Propionic Acid and Salts (Sodium, Calcium, and Potassium) in Foods

    Geun hee Cho , June seok Lim , Ji-Hyun Lim , Geon Oh , Xiaolu Fu , Xiao Men , Sun-Il Choi , and Ok-Hwan Lee

    This study aimed to improve and validate an analytical method for propionic acid and salts (sodium, calcium, and potassium) in foods using a gas chromatography-flame ionization detector (GC-FID) based on the International Conference on Harmonization guidelines. Since potassium propionate is an undesignated food additive in Korea, we investigated whether it could be analyzed with propionic acid and salts (sodium, calcium), which have been previously designated in Korea. Our results showed that propionic acid and salts (sodium, calcium, and potassium) had the same retention time when the optimized analytical method was performed using GC-FID. The bread sample was spiked with propionic acid (PA), sodium propionate (SP), calcium propionate (CP), and potassium propionate (PP). The correlation coefficient of the calibration curve was R2≥0.999 and the recovery rates were 85.84∼111.66%, with a relative standard deviation of 0.08∼2.13%. The limit of detection and limit of quantification in the bread samples ranged from 1.02 to 1.83 μg/mL and 3.09 to 5.55 μg/mL, respectively. The residual rate of propionic acid and salts in foods tended to decrease under various storage conditions. These results suggested that the improved and validated GC-FID analytical method is suitable for detecting and quantifying undesignated PP in food samples using designated PA, SP, and CP.Key words : propionic acid and salts, undesignated food additives, analytical method, method validation, monitoring

  • Article l 2024-05-31

    Biotin Contents of Grain Products Consumed in Korea

    Jiye Pyeon , Jihyeon Yu, Eunji Park, Jinju Park, Youngmin Choi , and Younghwa Kim

    Recently, the consumption of processed foods has been increasing due to changes in lifestyle. However, little is known about the biotin content of these foods. In this study, the biotin content of 28 kinds of rice products, 29 kinds of wheat products, and 4 kinds of other grain products were investigated. It was observed that puffed rice cake, cooked wheat pancake flour, and sesame gangjung have the highest biotin content in each of the above food groups. Overall, biotin levels in wheat products were higher than those in rice products. The results were confirmed using standard reference materials to verify the reliability and accuracy of the experimental results. The biotin concentrations determined in Standard Reference Material 3290 (dry cat food) showed good agreient with the reference values. The accuracy and precision of the method used for biotin analysis were excellent, with high recoveries and low relative standard deviations. These were acceptable based on the Association of Official Agricultural Chiists guidelines for single laboratory validation of chiical methods. Therefore, the data on the biotin content of grain products consumed in Korea obtained in this study can be considered to be reliable.Key words : biotin, grain product, HPLC, method validation, Korean food composition table

  • This study aimed to prepare food through an expert design program to enable easy intake thereby ensuring proper supply of nutrients to patients with dysphagia as well as the general public. The program conformed to the Korean industry standards for care-food. In this preparation, isolated soy protein, whey protein, and branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) were used to develop stick-type jelly. A suitable model was selected to assess the results of the physicochemical characteristics (chromaticity, pH, moisture content, and hardness). The preferred samples were prepared based on the mixture experimental design method, and the characteristics of the three types of protein-reinforced materials were analyzed. It was found that consumers did not prefer samples wherein the physical properties were too soft or too hard. The final optimal mixing ratio derived by maximizing overall acceptability and considering the specific conditions of the physicochemical variables was 2.04 g of soy protein isolate, 8.76 g of whey protein isolate, and 1.2 g of BCAA.Key words : care-food, stick-type jelly, protein enhancement, easy swallowing, texture adjustment

  • This study investigated whether brewer’s spent yeast (BSY) is suitable as an ingredient for preparing a milk alternative. To remove the bitter taste of BSY, it was washed with sodium hydroxide (NaOH). Subsequently, 2.09±0.12 g/100 mL of protein was extracted from BSY by autolysis and the emulsification activity index and emulsification stability index of the extract were 2.90±0.12 m2/g and 46.82±2.05%, respectively. BSY milk was prepared by high-speed homogenization of the extract and oil using a sugar ester. Emulsion stability was measured through the creaming index and turbidity. When canola oil and avocado oil were used, the emulsion was stable when the hydrophilic- lipophilic balance (HLB) value was 5. When coconut oil was used, the emulsion was most stable when the HLB value was 8. Most of the fat globules in the three samples were less than 2 μm in size. Viscosity was measured at 4°C and 25°C. There was no significant difference in viscosity between whole milk and all three samples. The color lightness and yellowness values were lower than those of whole milk, and there was no significant difference in redness values.Key words : brewer’s spent yeast, milk alternative, emulsification, autolysis

  • Article l 2024-05-31

    Evaluation of Anti-Helicobacter pylori Activity of Novel Lactic Acid Bacteria

    Ji-Hye Kim , Sung-Keun Jung , Young-Je Cho , and Byung-Oh Kim

    In this study, we aimed to isolate and identify strains of lactic acid bacteria from kkakdugi, to validate their potential use as alternative therapeutic agents against Helicobacter pylori. Eleven strains were identified, including Lactobacillus plantarum, Pediococcus pentosaceus, Lactobacillus brevis, Pediococcus acidilacti, and Leuconostoc mesenteroides. The paper disk method and urease inhibition activity were used to verify anti-H. pylori activity. Without pH adjustment, most strains exhibited an average inhibitory zone of 13.68 mm. However, when the pH was adjusted to 7.0, some strains showed inhibitory zones ranging from 11.65 to 13.15 mm. Nevertheless, upon comparison, it was observed that the antimicrobial activity was higher when the pH was not adjusted. On the other hand, antimicrobial activity against H. pylori G88026 strain was exhibited regardless of the pH. The results of urease inhibition confirmed a significant reduction of approximately 60∼90% in urease activity when the lactic acid bacterial culture supernatant was added. Except for the Lactobacillus sakei strain, the riaining strains exhibited potent urease inhibition activity. This suggests that the lactic acid bacteria isolated in this study could be promising candidates as alternative therapeutic agents against H. pylori.Key words : antimicrobial, Helicobacter pylori, kkakdugi, lactic acid bacteria, urease

  • Article l 2024-05-31

    Quality Characteristics of Jeju Premature Mandarin Mayonnaise

    Leeseon An , Minho Lee, and Soo-In Ryu

    We attempted to contribute to the stable income of citrus farmers by developing mayonnaise containing premature mandarin from Jeju. We confirmed the quality by comparing juice containing different premature mandarin content (0%, 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100%) with commercial mayonnaise. The color of premature mandarin mayonnaise was confirmed to have lower L* and a* values and higher b* values compared to commercial mayonnaise, thereby creating an image of a darker mayonnaise (P<0.05). Emulsion stability increased as the premature mandarin juice content increased, thus displaying excellent distribution and storage characteristics. Mayonnaise prepared with the addition of 100% premature mandarin juice was observed to have hardness, adhesiveness, cohesiveness, and springiness similar to commercial mayonnaise. Also, the chewiness of mayonnaise prepared with the addition of 50% premature mandarin juice was found to be similar to that of commercial mayonnaise (P<0.05). The functional superiority of premature mandarin mayonnaise was confirmed as the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and 2,2′-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid assays showed a higher radical scavenging activity which increased in proportion to the increase in premature mandarin juice content (P<0.05). The acid and peroxide values of premature mandarin mayonnaise decreased in proportion to its premature mandarin juice content, ensuring better preservation of mayonnaise (P<0.05). Therefore, increases in the amount of premature mandarin juice resulted in superior functionality. Thus, it was confirmed that this product has a competitive advantage compared to commercial mayonnaise in addition to satisfying the consumers’ desire for health.Key words : premature mandarin, mayonnaise, quality characteristic, antioxidant activity

  • Article l 2024-05-31

    Anti-Staling Effect according to the Premix Variety Used in Morning Bread

    Suk-Tae Oh , Hea-Young Kim , and Gyu-Hee Lee

    In the food industry, bread staling is a deterioration process that causes a loss of its commercial value. Morning bread samples were made by using wheat flour (WMB), white flake premix (FMB), and tomato bread premix (TMB) to determine the impact of these premix flours on the anti-staling properties of bread during storage. The gelatinization properties of various premixes and the baking, color, rheology, and retrogradation properties of morning bread samples prepared using various premixes were investigated to confirm the anti-staling effect during storage. An analysis of the gelatinization properties of various premixes revealed that the setback value was the lowest for the tomato bread premix. Also, the bread samples prepared with the FMB and TMB premixes were observed to have lower baking characteristics than WMB immediately after baking. Bread prepared with the FMB premix showed the highest change in hardness according to the storage period. However, there was no statistically significant difference between the FMB and WMB samples. The TMB premix showed the lowest rate of change in hardness according to the storage period. The aging analysis confirmed that while the FMB premix was effective in slowing aging, the TMB premix was much more effective in this regard. The results showed that the TMB premix improved freshness and delayed the deterioration of the bread structure. To conclude, the TMB premix has the potential for use as an effective additive to increase the storage stability of baked food.Key words : anti-staling effect, premix flour, morning bread, maltogenoic amylase, storage

  • This study aimed to investigate the consumption behavior and product selection attributes for chicken porridge among individuals aged 50 years and above, particularly active seniors. A preference survey was conducted on four domestic chicken porridge brands, encompassing elder-friendly products and home meal replacements (HMR). The results, analyzed through exploratory factor analysis, revealed the determining factors in choice. Consumers effectively differentiated and evaluated products based on their physical characteristics and elder-friendly attributes. This study provides foundational data for maintaining product strengths and addressing weaknesses in the development of new products based on the likes or dislikes of the consumers on the surveyed products. Also, the sensory attributes of the products were found to significantly influence overall preference, with a particular emphasis on flavor. Therefore, in the development of elder-friendly chicken porridge, it is important to focus on familiar ingredients for older adults and prioritize appealing flavor profiles. Additionally, it is advisable to favor a consistency that enables the product to be consumed with a spoon rather than drunk, thus avoiding sticky and watery products. This study will contribute to the health promotion and nutrition supplies for active seniors in the future by developing a chicken porridge (HMR). These results are also expected to serve as foundational data for establishing an effective marketing strategy for this product.Key words : active senior, chicken porridge, consumer preference, elder-friendly foods, selection attributes

  • This study evaluated the characteristics of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from kkakdugi for its use as a probiotic. In addition, the possibility of using it as a material for promoting antioxidant activity and skin functionality was evaluated. To verify the feasibility of LAB as probiotics, their survival rates in artificial gastric juice and artificial bile were evaluated. In artificial gastric juice, the average number of probiotics was maintained at 5.3×109 colony-forming units (CFU)/mL, showing a survival rate of about 99%. In artificial bile, the average number of probiotics was maintained at 1.2×109 CFU/mL, showing a survival rate of about 95%. The survival rate indicated their ability to reach the target site to exert their effects. In addition, autoaggregation and cell surface hydrophobicity experiments were conducted to indirectly confirm their ability to adhere to the gastrointestinal tract surface. The autoaggregation rate of all LAB strains increased over time. Specifically, L. plantarum K1-9 and L. brevis K2-9 strains showed high hydrophobicity. LAB culture supernatants were used to evaluate antioxidant activity, antidiabetic activity, and skin functionality, such as the effects on skin wrinkles, whitening, and astringent effects. The results showed that, the LAB isolated from kkakdugi had high antioxidant activity. In addition, increasing the concentration of the LAB culture supernatant is expected to have positive effects on skin wrinkles and whitening. Therefore, it is believed that these characteristics of the LAB isolated from kkakdugi ensure that they have sufficient potential to be utilized as an intestinal probiotic and functional cosmetic materials.Key words : lactic acid bacteria, probiotics, physiological activity, skin functionality

  • Article l 2024-05-31

    Physicochemical Properties of Spirulina Emulsions under Various Model Beverage Conditions

    Hye-Yoon Yi , Gyu-Hyun Park , and Ji-Yeon Chun

    This study investigated the preparation and stability of Spirulina oil in water emulsion (SPE) for potential application in beverages. Spirulina is known for its high carotenoid content, which is a beneficial antioxidant. However, its strong taste and smell can make it challenging to consume directly. SPE was prepared by dissolving Spirulina in medium-chain triglyceride oil and using an emulsifier with a hydrophilic-lipophilic balance value of 9.5. Its stability was then tested in model beverage systems with varying sugar content (0, 10, and 20°Brix) and pH levels (3, 5, and 7). The findings revealed that SPE had a high reducing sugar content under low pH conditions, particularly at 20°Brix and pH 3, with a content of 966.36±1.24 μg/mL. Additionally, the Spirulina emulsion model beverage (SPEB) with higher sugar content exhibited minimal color difference compared to distilled water. The transmittance of SPEB was found to be higher under model beverage conditions with high soluble solids content. Therefore, this study suggests that the application of SPE to beverages with a high sugar content is more suitable due to improved particle stability and transmittance. This indicates a potential strategy to incorporate the beneficial properties of Spirulina into beverages while mitigating its taste and smell issues.Key words : Spirulina, emulsion, critical micelle concentration, model food, beverages

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May 2024
Vol.53 No.5

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Print ISSN 1226-3311 Online ISSN 2288-5978