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JKFN Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition



Online ISSN 2288-5978

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  • Article l 2021-08-31

    The Effect of Chaenomelis Fructus Extract on Thioacetamide-Induced Liver Fibrosis

    Jin A Lee , Se Hui Lee, Mi-Rae Shin, Jeong Sook Noh, and Seong-Soo Roh

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of Chaenomelis Fructus (CF) extract on thioacetamide (TAA)-induced liver fibrosis in mice. The mice were divided into four groups for examination: Normal group (Normal, n=9), group with liver fibrosis administered distilled water (Control, n=9), group with liver fibrosis administered silymarin 100 mg/kg (Silymarin, n=9), group with liver fibrosis administered CF 200 mg/kg (CF, n=9). Liver fibrosis was established in the mice via an injection of TAA (1 week 100 mg/kg B.W., 2∼3 weeks 200 mg/kg B.W., 4∼8 weeks 400 mg/kg B.W., three times a week, I.P) for 8 weeks and they were administered silymarin and CF extract (every day, P.O) with the TAA. After the autopsy, we analyzed the expression of inflammation-related proteins and fibrosis-related factors in the liver tissue by the western blot test. The results of the experiment showed that the administration of CF regulated the expression of phosphorylated AMPK (p-AMPK) and Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) and inhibited the expression of the nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) pathway. In addition, the expressions of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), TIMP metallopeptidase inhibitor 1 (TIMP-1), ɑ-smooth muscle actin (ɑ-SMA), and collagen Ⅰ related to fibrosis were suppressed. These results suggest that the progression of liver fibrosis may be alleviated by regulating the AMPK/SIRT1/NF-κB pathway, as well as the expression of fibrosis-related factors.Key words : Chaenomelis Fructus, liver fibrosis, thioacetamide

  • Article l 2021-08-31

    Intestinal Epithelial Monolayer Permeability of Sweet Potato-Derived Anthocyanin and Carotenoid Extracts in Caco-2 Cells

    Woo Sung Park , Kyung Ah Koo , Hye-Jin Kim, Ji-Min Kwon, Dong-Min Kang, Hye Jin Chung, Shin Woo Lee, Ho-Su Kim, Sang-Soo Kwak, and Mi-Jeong Ahn

    Caco-2 human intestinal epithelial cells were used to determine the intestinal epithelial monolayer membrane permeability of the anthocyanin and carotenoid extracts from the purple- and yellow-flashed sweet potatoes, respectively. The permeability was analyzed at concentrations of 10 mg/mL of anthocyanin extract and 0.5 mg/mL of carotenoid extract without cellular toxicity. The Caco-2 cells were incubated for 25 days to form a monolayer on the Transwell filter. It was ensured that the membrane integrity of the monolayer was suitable for measuring the permeability in vitro by treatment with lucifer yellow and comparison with two markers, atenolol and propranolol. The permeability of lucifer yellow was 0.53% and the apparent permeability coefficients (Papp) of atenolol and propranolol were 6.01×10-7 and 2.26×10-5 cm/s, respectively, indicating that the monolayer was successfully formed. The Papp of the anthocyanin extract was 0.31×10-6, 1.57×10-6, 4.69×10-6, and 5.16×10-6 cm/s for 1, 2, 4, and 6 hours, respectively. Analysis of the permeation rate on each of the twelve anthocyanins, 7 peonidins and 5 cyanidins in the extract showed that peonidins and cyanidins possessing caffeic acid present a higher permeability than those with ferulic acid or benzoic acid. However, cryptoxanthin, 13Z-β-carotene, all-trans-β-carotene, and 9Z-β-carotene in the carotenoid extract were not detectable within 6 hours of the incubation time.Key words : sweet potato, anthocyanin, carotenoid, Caco-2, monolayer permeability

  • Article l 2021-08-31

    Effects of Vanillic Acid on the Differentiation and Mineralization of Osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 Cells

    Hyun-Ju Seo , Kun Ho Son , Jin-hyeon Hwang, Dong-ha Kim, Yu Seong Park, In-Sook Kwun, and Young-Eun Cho

    Vanillic acid (VA), namely 4-hydroxy-3-methoxy benzoic acid, is one of the major compounds isolated from the bioactive fraction of Viticis Fructus. VA is derived from dihydroxybenzoic acid, an oxidized form of vanillin. Although studies on the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer pharmacologic properties of VA have been conducted, there is little research on the effect of VA on bone metabolism. The objective of the present study was to investigate the potential anti-osteoporotic properties of VA on the differentiation and mineralization in osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells. These cells were cultured in 0, 0.1, 1, 10 μg/mL VA for 3, 6, and 9 days. The MTT assay results showed that VA had not changed the osteoblastic cell proliferation. Extracellular alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity increased as VA concentration increased at 9 days. ALP staining was also elevated as VA concentration increased at 6 and 9 days. Markedly, VA significantly increased the mineralized nodules in a dose-dependent manner at 3, 6, and 9 days. In addition, VA significantly increased the expression of the bone differentiation marker ALP at 3 days. The expression of the bone-specific transcription factor Runx2 protein was also elevated in the VA-treated osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells at 3 days. The expression of the downstream regulator of bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) signaling, phosphorylation of ERK (p-ERK) was slightly elevated in VA-treated osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells at 3 days. Our results suggest that VA regulates osteoblast differentiation and mineralization in osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells. Taken together, our results clearly demonstrate that VA may be useful in preventing osteoporosis through the stimulation of osteoblastic differentiation and mineralization.Key words : vanillic acid, osteoblastic MC3T3-E1, differentiation, mineralization, BMP-2 signaling

  • The present study aimed to identify the potential biological activities of Monascus-fermented grain vinegar (Monascus vinegar, MV) with respect to its antioxidant, anti-diabetic, and anti-obesity effects. MV showed inhibitory activity against pancreatic lipase, α-amylase, and α-glucosidase with IC50 values of 0.48, 0.10, and 0.09 mg/mL, respectively as well as excellent antioxidant activity. Furthermore, MV showed significant inhibitory activity (P<0.05) on adipocyte differentiation in the 3T3-L1 preadipocytes without affecting cell viability as assessed by measuring fat accumulation using Oil Red O staining. These in vitro biological effects were higher in MV than in other kinds of commercial vinegar including brown rice vinegar (BV) and five kinds of cereal vinegar (CV). The results demonstrate that MV can inhibit the key enzymes related to type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and obesity. Our findings suggest that MV can be used for the prevention of lifestyle diseases such as obesity and T2DM.Key words : Monascus vinegar, anti-diabetic, anti-obesity, 3T3-L1 preadipocytes

  • Article l 2021-08-31

    Evaluation of Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activity of Buah Merah (Pandenus conoideus) by Solvent Fractionation

    Min-Zy Kim , Kyoung-Hee Kim, Hyun Jang, and Hong-Sun Yook

    Buah merah is a plant native to Papua, Indonesia, and is rich in antioxidants. In this study, the extraction method of the antioxidant content of the buah merah was optimized. The phenol content was found to be 0.6 to 2.0 GAE mg/g, and the activity was the highest in dichloromethane. Total flavonoid content was found to be 0.1 to 2.7 CE mg/g and showed the highest activity in dichloromethane. The ferric reducing ability of plasma, measurement was found to be 5.1 to 44.8 mM/g, and the highest value was seen in dichloromethane. ABTS radical scavenging activity showed an IC50 value of 3.2∼27.7 mg/mL, and the lowest value was 1.8 mg/mL in dichloromethane. DPPH radical scavenging activity showed an IC50 value of 1.6∼48.41 mg/mL, and the lowest value was 1.6 mg/mL in dichloromethane. It was found that each fraction showed antimicrobial activity in the experiment. The hexane fraction showed the highest antimicrobial activity against E. cloacae and B. cereus, and the dichloromethane fraction showed the highest antimicrobial activity against S. aureus and E. coli. The butanol fraction showed the highest activity against S. aureus, B. cereus, and S. enterica, and the water fraction showed the highest activity against S. enterica and S. aureus. Based on all these results, it was found that the dichloromethane was the most active and effective fraction of buah merah.Key words : Buah merah (Pandenus conoideus), antioxidant activity, solvent fraction, antimicrobial activity

  • Article l 2021-08-31

    The Effects on Contents and True Retentions of Bioactive Compounds in Cooked Mushrooms by Superheated Steam

    Dagyeong Kim , Minju Kim, Min-Jung Kang, and Younghwa Kim

    This study sought to investigate the effect of superheated steam on the contents and the true retention of bioactive compounds in mushrooms. The results showed that the true retention of water-soluble vitamins B1 (thiamin), B2 (riboflavin), B3 (niacin), and C (ascorbic acid) were higher in mushrooms after superheated steaming as compared to the conventional steaming method. The content of total polyphenols and flavonoids in the cooked mushrooms except for Hypsizygus tessellatus increased with both superheated steaming and conventional steaming methods as compared to uncooked mushrooms. Also, the true retention of total polyphenols and flavonoids in superheated steamed mushrooms was higher than the conventional method. In general, the contents and the true retention of ergothioneine and glucan were higher in mushrooms with superheated steaming compared to the conventional steaming method. The free radical scavenging activity of the superheated steamed samples except for Pleurotus eryngii increased compared to that of the conventional steamed samples. These results suggest that superheated steaming causes positive changes in the nutritional and functional components of mushrooms compared to conventional steaming.Key words : mushroom, superheated steam, bioactive compound, true retention

  • This study investigated taste and aroma characteristics of 10 commercial coffee samples using an electronic tongue (E-tongue), an electronic nose (E-nose), gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MSD), and GC-olfactometry (GC-O). In electronic tongue analysis, sourness, umami, and bitterness were high in the non-franchise#2 (N-FC#2), saltiness was high in the franchise#1 (FC#1), and sweetness was high in the non-franchise#4 (N-FC#4). In the electronic nose analysis, a total of 22 volatile compounds were identified in the 10 coffee samples, and 3-methyl-1-butanol, 2-methyl furan, and propan-2-one were the dominant content in these samples. In GC/MSD with GC-O analysis, a total of 40 volatile active compounds were identified, which include 3 alcohols, 2 aldehydes, 3 esters, 3 furans, 5 hydrocarbons, 5 heterocyclics, 4 ketones, 6 pyrazines, 5 pyrroles, 2 pyridines, and 2 phenolic compounds. Pyrazines were the dominant volatiles in the samples. 1-(2-Furanylmethyl)-1H-pyrrole was detected in all samples and showed a relatively higher content compared to other pyrroles. Our results which included taste and aroma patterns in commercial coffee brands may provide basic research data for the chemosensory research field.Key words : commercial coffee, E-tongue, E-nose, GC/MSD, GC-olfactometry

  • Article l 2021-08-31

    Establishment and Validation of an Optimized Analytical Method for Ferrous Gluconic Acid in Health Functional Foods Using HPLC-ELSD and LC/MS

    Yeongju Park , Soyeon Jeong, Hyunji Seo, Jihyun Lee, Chan Lee, and Hee-Jae Suh

    Ferrous gluconate has been used in Korea, the United States, Japan, and the European Union to control the acidity in foods. We optimized an analytical method to determine the levels of ferrous gluconate in foods by a high-performance liquid chromatography-evaporative light scattering detector (HPLC-ELSD) and an ultra-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS). The linearity of the developed analysis method using HPLC was excellent with a coefficient of determination (R2) of 0.999 obtained from calibration curve, and limits of detection and quantitation were 12.8 μg/mL and 38.9 μg/mL, respectively. In intra-day and inter-day analysis, the accuracy was 95.6∼101.5% and 98.6∼103.1%, respectively, and the precision was 1.5∼2.6% and 0.7∼2.9%, respectively. The measurement uncertainty of analyzing the health functional food samples was within 3%, and the verification results of all analytical methods met the standards of the European Commission (EC). UPLC-MS was also used to confirm ferrous gluconate. As a result, the field applicability of the ferrous gluconate analytical method developed in this study was confirmed.Key words : ferrous gluconic acid, acidity regulator, HPLC-ELSD, UPLC-MS, analytical method

  • Article l 2021-08-31

    Estimation of Measurement Uncertainty of Dioxin (2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin) Analysis in Food

    Chan Jong Park , Han Sol Kim, Taehyun Ahn, Eun A Chong, Ji Eun Lee, Sujin Seo, and Yong Eui Koo

    In this study, the quality assurance system was established in line with international standards by acquiring ISO/IEC 17025 accreditation for dioxin analysis in food. In order to strengthen the reliability and public credibility of the results, ISO/IEC 17025 recommends to provide information on ‘measurement uncertainty’ along with the measured values. Based on the ‘Guide to the Estimation of Uncertainty in Measurement’ (GUM) and the ‘EURACHEM/CITAC guide’, a model relational equation for estimating the uncertainty of the 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (2,3,7,8-TCDD) analysis in food was established. In the process of analyzing the 2,3,7,8-TCDD concentration in food, the measurement uncertainty was calculated by considering the important uncertainty factors that may exist. The combined uncertainty was calculated by using the eight uncertainty factors (precision, recovery, calibration curve, repeat measurement of sample, standard, internal standard, volume of sample, and weight of sample). The biggest factor influencing the uncertainty was the recovery. In the 95% confidence interval, the expanded uncertainty was calculated as 3.8 pg/g using k-value (2). The final expression can be stated as 12.0±3.8 pg/g (confidence interval 95%, k=2). Through the measurement uncertainty estimation, the factors that cause analysis errors during the analytical procedure of dioxin were identified and the degree of their influence on the results was calculated. The reliability of the analysis result was obtained by calculating the uncertainty, which is the basic element of ISO/IEC 17025 and minimizing the uncertainty factors.Key words : dioxin, ISO/IEC 17025, measurement uncertainty, quality assurance, standardization

  • Article l 2021-08-31

    Quality Property of Surimi Mixture by Tuna (Katsuwonus pelamis) Eyeball Oil and Possibility of Application to Food 3D Printing

    Jeong-Cheol Park , Hyeon-Su Han, Ye-Lin Park, Yoo-Seok Kang, Hun-Seo Seo, Ye-Hui Choi, Su-Hyeong Kim, Su-Ryong Kim, So-Mi Jeong, Woo-Sin Kang, Han-Ho Kim, Si-Hyeong Ryu, Ji-Eun Lee, Xiaotong Xu, Ga-Hye Lee, and Dong-Hyun Ahn

    In this study, we added tuna eyeball oil to golden threadfin bream (Nemipterus virgatus) surimi paste to control its physical properties for food 3D printing. We then conducted color value analysis, texture profile analysis, and sensory evaluation to confirm the effects of the addition of the tuna eyeball oil. We did the same test after 7 days of refrigeration as well. From these tests, we identified that tuna eyeball oil added to the surimi paste, stored for 7 days and subsequently heat-processed had increased hardness. In the color value analysis, the tuna eyeball oil increased the lightness of the surimi products regardless of the storage duration. However, adding over 3% of tuna eyeball oil gives a significant bitter taste to surimi. Thus, it was confirmed that when 1% of tuna eyeball oil was added, it was possible to develop a surimi paste cartridge for 3D printing with soft physical properties by improving whiteness and emulsifying fat and moisture.Key words : surimi, 3D printer, tuna eyeball oil, properties, golden threadfin bream

  • Soybean curd residue has sulfur-containing amino acids, lysine, rich dietary fiber, and pectin polysaccharide, but most of these are discarded due to storage problems. Fermentation of the soybean curd residue improves functionality and storage. In this study, the control group of vegan nutritional bars was compared with the experimental groups comprising the bars with the addition of fermented soybean curd residue powder (0%, 2%, 4%, 6%, 8%). The comparison parameters included antioxidant activity, quality, and sensory evaluation according to content. The results of the measurement of the total polyphenol and DPPH free radical scavenging activity of the fermented soybean curd residue confirmed high antioxidant activity. The vegan nutrition bars increased in moisture, pH, and soluble solids as the added amount of fermented soybean curd residue powder increased. On the other hand, hardness, fracturability, cohesiveness, chewiness, and the color value L decreased. In the sensory evaluation, the 4% sample of fermented soybean curd residue powder received the highest score for taste, texture, and overall acceptability. Based on these results, it was confirmed that fermented soybean curd residue powder has value as a functional food ingredient and can be used in developing a high-protein convenience meal for vegans.Key words : fermented soybean curd residue, vegans, nutritional bars, antioxidant activity, quality evaluation

  • This study examined yearly trend of sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) intake and compared nutritional status by SSB intake levels in elementary school children aged 6∼11 years (n=5,123) using the 2007∼2015 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). The SSB included in the study was carbonated drinks, sports drinks, and caffeinated drinks containing added sugars. Subjects were classified into three groups by SSB intake level obtained using the 24-hour recall method: SSB 1 (SSB intake 0 g/d), SSB 2 (0 g/d< SSB intake< 50th percentile) and SSB 3 (SSB intake≥ 50th percentile). The daily intake of total beverages in all subjects increased significantly, 2.2 times from 50.3±6.6 g/d in 2007 to 111.7±12.8 g/d in 2015 (PKey words : sugar-sweetened beverage, nutrient intake, nutritional status, children, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

  • The purpose of this study was to analyze the causal relationship between employees’ emotional labor, job burnout, job satisfaction and turnover intentions in Korean franchised restaurants. In this study, 200 respondents who worked at these restaurants as customer contact service providers were selected using the purposive sampling method, and data from 165 respondents were included for empirical analyses. Statistical analyses were performed using SPSS ver. 23.0 and AMOS ver. 22.0 programs. An analysis was conducted to examine the causal relationship between emotional labor (surface acting, deep acting) and job burnout (emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, diminished personal accomplishment), job satisfaction, and turnover intentions. The results showed that surface acting had a positive (+) effect on depersonalization (0.229, t=2.805, PKey words : emotional labor, job burnout, job satisfaction, turnover intentions, Korean franchised restaurants

  • This study analyzed the comparative importance of the selection attributes of a lunch box (dosirak) in single men and suggests a solution for the ideal type of lunch box that would appeal to single men using conjoint analysis techniques. A total of 252 questionnaires were distributed to single men who had previously purchased a lunch box in convenience stores or franchise dosirak stores. The conjoint design was applied to evaluate a hypothetical lunch box for single men. As a result, the order of importance of the attributes of the lunch box was found to be the price (41.66%), menu composition (24.62%), delivery status (17.45%), and place of purchase (16.27%). The ideal combination of the selection attributes of lunch box was a purchase in a franchise dosirak store, having a delivery service, a type 3 menu (Rice・Kimchi+fried pork cutlet, chicken, fish cutlet), and a low price of 3,500 won. The most preferred lunch box showed an incremental 57.6% potential market share using choice simulation compared to the lunch box being currently sold. Using the utility of attributes, the lunch box market for single men was classified into two segments. As a result of market segmentation, single men of cluster 1 preferred a lunch box with the menu type 2 and a price of 8,500 won while single men of cluster 2 preferred a lunch box with the menu type 3 and a price of 3,500 won. These results will help establish a database that contributes to the development of differentiated products and building marketing strategies that can satisfy the needs of single men.Key words : lunch box, attributes, single men, conjoint analysis

Journal Info

August, 2021
Vol.50 No.8

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Print ISSN 1226-3311 Online ISSN 2288-5978