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JKFN Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition

Online ISSN 2288-5978 Print ISSN 1226-3311

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  • Article l 2020-12-31

    Inhibitory Effect of Yacon Leaf Extract on the Metabolic Syndrome Induced by a High Fructose Diet in Rats

    Hyun Wook Jang, So-Yeon Go, Mi Hyun Hong, and Young-Eun Lee

    This study was conducted to investigate the inhibitory effect of 70% ethanol extract of yacon leaf on the metabolic syndrome induced by a high fructose (HF) diet in male Sprague-Dawley (SD) white rats. Five-week-old rats were divided into four groups and the experiment was carried out for 8 weeks. AIN-76A diets were fed to the control group and 60% HF diet to the metabolic syndrome induced group. Yacon leaf extracts were orally administered to the two experimental groups from the 5th week of the HF diet. The HF diet increased body weight, blood pressure, epididymal fat weight and size, total cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL-C, insulin and aorta thickness of the rats, but yacon leaf extracts administration reduced these changes. These results suggest that yacon leaf has an excellent preventive effect on the metabolic syndrome by improving obesity, dyslipidemia and blood pressure induced by an HF diet in rats. Therefore, yacon leaf has the potential for use as an ingredient in novel health foods for the prevention of the metabolic syndrome in the future.Key words : yacon leaf, metabolic syndrome, obesity, dyslipidemia, hypertension

  • Obesity causes several metabolic and chronic diseases, including type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Among the omega-3 fatty acids, various health benefits of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; C22:6n-3) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; C20:5n-3) have been elucidated. This study examined the hypolipidemic effect of DHA and EPA and the epigenetic regulation of DHA and EPA through histone acetyltransferases (HAT) activity. DHA and EPA inhibited the in vitro HAT activity, and non-toxic levels of DHA and EPA significantly attenuated lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes treated with MDI (IBMX+dexamethasone+insulin) and insulin. DHA and EPA regulated the expression of lipogenic, cholesterol-related, or triacylglycerol synthesis-related genes. Indeed, DHA and EPA significantly enhanced PPARα and PPARγ2 in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes treated with MDI and insulin. Although DHA also increased SREBP1α and LXR significantly, EPA significantly attenuated the expression of the SREBP1α and LXR genes. In addition, a lower level of DHA increased AGPAT2 gene expression significantly, which was reduced significantly by the EPA treatment in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes treated with MDI and insulin. These results suggest that the hypolipidemic activity of EPA and DHA is exerted via different gene expression regulation, which is likely to be associated with HAT activity inhibition.Key words : DHA, EPA, HAT, 3T3-L1 preadipocytes, AGPAT2

  • Article l 2020-12-31

    Immuno-Enhancing and Anticancer Effects of Sweet Potato Peel-Based Plant Mixture

    In-Seon Jeong, Kyeong Sun Kang, Eun-Hye Kim, Seung Man Park, and Mi Ja Chung

    This study investigated the immune-enhancing activity and anticancer effects of a sweet potato peel-based plant mixture, including Platycodon grandiflorum, Codonopsis lanceolata and corn silk, on RAW264.7 macrophages or AGS human gastric cancer cells. The products developed in this study were pouches (M3E-A) made by plant mixture extract, stick pouches (M3C-B) made using M3E-A concentrate and plant mixture tea (M3T-C). The M3A, M3B, and M3C were in the form of freeze-dried powder after the extraction and concentration of M3E-A, M3C-B, and M3T-C, respectively. The M3A, M3B, and M3C dose-dependently increased the production of nitric oxide (NO) and pro-inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-6 in RAW264.7 macrophages. The NO and cytokine (TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6) levels in the M3A or M3C-treated RAW264.7 macrophages were higher than those in the M3B-treated RAW264.7 macrophages. Mice treated orally with M3C (100 mg/kg, 300 mg/kg), resulted in significantly increased splenocyte proliferation, NO levels and cytokine (INF-γ, IL-10) levels compared to control mice. The M3A, M3B, and M3C (250 to 2,000 μg/mL), respectively, inhibited the growth of AGS cells in a dose-dependent manner. These results indicate that products using sweet potato peel-based plant mixture may be used for immuno-enhancing and anticancer effects by healthy people and cancer patients.Key words : AGS cells, anticancer effect, immuno-enhancing effect, mouse, RAW264.7 macrophages

  • Article l 2021-01-31

    Antioxidant Activity and Hepatoprotective Effects of Extracts from Different Parts of Papaver rhoeas L.

    Hee Sun Yang , Mi Jin Kim, Mina Kim, Pu Reum Im, and Jeong-sook Choe

    This study examined the antioxidant activities of the two Papaver rhoeas L. (PR; PRP (pink flower PR), PRR (red flower PR)) on hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced oxidative stress in HepG2 cells. Different parts (whole, leaf, and fruit) of PRP and PRR were extracted with 50% ethanol. Their antioxidant activities were analyzed using the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging assay. The extracts were evaluated for cellular anti-oxidation and protection from the cell viability, intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging activity and antioxidant enzyme activities. The PR leaf and fruit extracts contained high amounts of bio-active compounds, such as total phenol and total flavonoid. The DPPH and ABTS results revealed antioxidant activity in the following order: leaf, fruit, and whole plant. The pretreatment with all the PR extracts increased the viability, antioxidant enzyme activities and intracellular ROS scavenging activity in a dose-dependent manner in H2O2-treated HepG2 cells. In particular, intracellular ROS scavenging activity was highest using the leaf extracts. These results suggest that 50% ethanol extracts of PR could be used as functional food sources.Key words : Papaver rhoeas L., antioxidant, hepatoprotection, HepG2 cell

  • Spices are known to possess antibacterial activity against pathogens. In contrast, they also promote probiotic bacterial growth, such as Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium. In the current study, 10 strains isolated from Korean human feces and kimchi were screened for bacterial growth in the presence of spices mainly used in Korean foods, including garlic, onion, ginger, red pepper, and Chungyang pepper. Majority of the strains showed maximum growth in red pepper. In order to investigate properties of the candidate strains as probiotics, we evaluated the adhesion ability to intestinal epithelial HT-29 cells, acid and bile tolerance, and inhibition activity of gelatinase and urease. The functionality of the fermented product was subsequently studied, as most strains grew well in the presence of spices. The antioxidant activity was determined using DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl). Fermented products of ginger and red pepper with strains showed higher free radical scavenging activity than the spices themselves. In addition, subsequent to lipopolysaccharides-induced impairment, the fermented products of red pepper with selected strains also exhibited increased mRNA expression of tight junction protein in HT-29 cells. Taken together, the results of this study indicate that strains isolated from Korean human feces and kimchi have a high growth rate in the presence of spices, and their fermented products exert increased anti-oxidant activity, thereby indicating the potential functionality in improving gut barrier functions.Key words : spices, probiotics, fermentation, anti-oxidant, tight junction protein

  • Note l 2020-12-31

    Quality Characteristics of Wintering Radishes Produced in Jeju Island Using E-Nose, E-Tongue, and GC-MSD Approach

    Chang Guk Boo, Seong Jun Hong, Youngseung Lee, Sung-Soo Park, and Eui-Cheol Shin

    This study compared the taste and odor patterns using an electronic tongue, electronic nose, and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with olfactometry. In electronic tongue analysis, the umami and saltiness intensities were high in the large sample. Sourness and saltiness were high in the small-size. Twenty-three kinds of volatile compounds in wintering radish samples were identified using an electronic nose. Acetaldehyde and methyl but-2-enoate were predominant compounds in all samples. Principal component analysis segregated different sized samples successfully. GC-MSD identified 27 sulfur-containing compounds, two acids, two alcohols, two heterocyclic compounds, and one aldehyde. Sulfur-containing compounds were the dominant compounds. Olfactory analysis identified nine odor active compounds, with dimethyl trisulfide and dimethyl disulfide being the predominant compounds. Multivariate analysis based on the chemical senses and chromatographic data can be used as a basic research tool for the food sensory research field.Key words : wintering radish, E-tongue, E-nose, GC/MSD, PCA

  • Previously, we have shown that green tea extract (GTE) lowers intestinal lipid absorption in rats. Evidence indicates that dioxins are lipophilic food pollutants. This study was conducted to investigate whether GTE would affect the luminal uptake of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (2,3,7,8-TCDD) by the intestinal mucosa in a rat model. Male rats were given free access to deionized water and an AIN-93G diet containing GTE at 0, 5, or 20 g/kg for 3 weeks. Rats weighing 320∼400 g were fasted for 14 hours prior to the experiment. Under isoflurane anesthesia, the abdomen was opened and a 10 cm long jejunal segment was quickly ligated in situ. A micellar solution [1.0 μCi 3H-2,3,7,8-TCDD, 0.026 pmol unlabelled 2,3,7,8-TCDD, 1.0 μCi 14C-oleic acid, 133.0 μmol unlabelled oleic acid, 66.7 μmol 2-monooleoylglycerol, and 16.5 mmol Na-taurocholate per L of PBS (pH 6.4)] was injected into the ligated jejunal segment. At 10 min, each rat was sacrificed and the segment was removed for lipid analysis. GTE lowered the luminal uptake of 3H-2,3,7,8-TCDD in a dose-dependent manner. Likewise, the mucosal rates of 14C-oleic acid esterification into lipids were dose-dependently decreased by GTE. These results indicate that both the lowered luminal 3H-2,3,7,8-TCDD uptake and the slower 14C-oleic acid esterification rates are attributable to the presence of GTE. This may be attributed to the inhibitory effect of GTE on the intestinal uptake and intracellular processing of lipids, thereby resulting in lowered intestinal absorption of dioxin and fats. Further studies are warranted to investigate the mechanisms underlying the inhibition of dioxin absorption by green tea or its catechins.Key words : green tea extract, luminal uptake, dioxin, oleic acid, mucosa

  • Article l 2021-01-31

    Quality Characteristics and Antioxidant Activity of Malt Made with Two-Row Barley

    Min Hyeong Kim , Kwon-Jai Lee, and Jeung Hee An

    This study was carried out to investigate the quality characteristics and antioxidant activities of domestic and foreign malts. The protein content of Hopum and Gwangmaeg barley was 13.83% and 10.57%, respectively. Also, the protein content of the Hopum and Gwangmaeg malts showed a higher increase at 14.95% and 11.65%, respectively, compared to barley, Denmark malt (9.78%), and German malt (11.8%). The Kolbach index of the Hopum and the Gwangmaeg malts was 17.18% and 16.39%. Diastatic power of the Hopum malt was observed at 163.39 W.K and Gwangmaeg malt at 157.79 W.K, which was higher than the malts from Denmark and Germany. The Gwangma eg malt had a total flavonoid content of 148.88 mg CHE/g which was higher than other malts. The DPPH radical scavenging activity of the Hopum malt showed high activity at 500 μg/mL concentration. The ABTS radical scavenging activity observed in the Hopum malt was higher (81.19%) compared to the Gwangmaeg malt (72.97%), and malt from Denmark (81.17%) at 1,000 μg/mL concentration. The extracts of the Hopum malt had the highest ABTS activity (81.19%) among the tested groups. The ABTS and DPPH scavenging ability and reducing power increased significantly with increasing malt concentration (P<0.05). These results suggest that domestic malts can be used effectively as functional foods with antioxidant activity or free radical scavenging activity.Key words : two-row barley, malt, quality characteristics, total polyphenol, antioxidant activity

  • Note l 2020-12-31

    Filtered Coffee Lowers Intestinal Cholesterol and Fat Absorption in Rats

    Juyeon Kim, SoYoon Ju, and Sang Kyu Noh

    Coffee is a complex mixture of biologically active components such as chlorogenic acids and caffeine, which may affect human health. However, there has been a long-standing controversy regarding its impact on lipid metabolism. This study was conducted to determine the role of filtered coffee in lowering intestinal absorption of cholesterol and fat in rats. Rats with lymph duct cannulae were infused with a lipid emulsion at 3.0 mL/h for 8 h via an intraduodenal catheter. The lipid emulsion contained a mixture of 33.3 kBq 14C-cholesterol, 20.7 μmol of cholesterol, 396.0 μmol of Na-taurocholate, 3.1 μmol of α-tocopherol, 452.0 μmol of triolein, and 75.4 μmol of retinol. The rats were divided into two groups, the control and the coffee group. The control group was administered lipid emulsion without filtered coffee and the coffee group was administered lipid emulsion with filtered coffee in phosphate buffered saline (pH 6.4). Lymph was collected hourly for 8 h. Filtered coffee significantly lowered the intestinal absorption of 14C-cholesterol (38.16±3.18% dose/8 h in the control group vs. 25.01±5.75% dose/8 h in the coffee group). Also, filtered coffee markedly lowered oleic acid absorption. The findings provide direct evidence that filtered coffee has a profound inhibitory effect on the intestinal absorption of cholesterol and fat.Key words : filtered coffee, cholesterol, fat, absorption, rat

  • Article l 2020-12-31

    Quality Characteristics and Antioxidant Activities of Macaron Added with Black Sesame

    Su Jin Kim, Da Hee Kim, Seong Yeon Baek, Young Mi Park, and Mee Ree Kim

    The aim of the study was to assess the benefits of fortifying macarons with black sesame powder, which is high in biological activity. Macarons were fortified by adding varying amounts of black sesame powder, and the physicochemical properties and antioxidant activities of the end products were evaluated. The moisture content and weight of macarons were higher in the black sesame additive group than in the control group, whereas the volume and spread ratio were lower. The soluble solid content and reducing sugar content were the lowest in the control group and increased with the addition of the black sesame. The pH was observed to be 6.89∼7.16 in both the control and the black sesame additive groups. The L, a, and b values on the Hunter color system significantly varied from the control group with the addition of black sesame. The texture of the macarons in the black sesame additive group showed a decreased hardness, gumminess, and chewiness. Macarons in the black sesame additive group were observed to have higher total phenol and flavonoid content as compared to the control group. 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity and superoxide dismutase (SOD)-like activity increased due to the addition of black sesame, thus resulting in higher antioxidant activity. The overall acceptability for the 30% black sesame additive group was the best in the sensory properties test. We conclude that the addition of black sesame powder has a positive effect on the antioxidant activities and sensory properties of macarons.Key words : macaron, black sesame, quality characteristics, antioxidant activities

  • Article l 2020-12-31

    Physicochemical Properties, Functional Components, and Physiological Activities of Sorghum Cultivars

    Hyun-Joo Kim, Koan Sik Woo, Jin Young Lee, Myeong Eun Choe, Haelim Lee, Yu-Young Lee, Byong Won Lee, Mihyang Kim, and Moon Suk Kang

    This study investigated the physicochemical properties, functional components, and of sorghum cultivars, to select a good cultivar for use in the food processing and cosmetic industries. The moisture, crude protein, lipid, ash, total dietary fiber, total starch, and amylose content of sorghum ranged from 9.72∼10.17%, 9.26∼10.70%, 3.12~4.54%, 1.89∼2.24%, 4.73∼7.88%, 66.87∼68.40%, and 5.66∼23.92%. The binding capacity, water solubility, and swelling power were greatest in Donganme. An analysis of the pasting properties revealed Sodamchal had a high breakdown value. The γ-aminobutyric (GABA) and phytic acid contents of the sorghum cultivars were 17.57∼115.87 mg/g and 0.88∼1.79 mg/100 g, respectively. The total polyphenol content of the Donganme, Nampungchal, and Sodamchal cultivars were 171.86, 76.54, and 156.34 mg/g, and the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) was 933.98, 541.48, and 990.82 mM/g, respectively. The α-glucosidase inhibit activity was 96.98, 89.75, and 98.27%, and the tyrosinase inhibit activity was 62.16, 61.64, and 61.90%, respectively. The total phenol content and physiological activities of sorghum, especially Donganme and Sodamchal, were high and these cultivars be used as a functional material.Key words : sorghum, cultivars, physicochemical properties, functional component, physiological activity

  • Banana (Musa acuminate Colla) is widely grown in tropical regions. Banana peel is normally discarded and thrown away as waste. Although several studies have reported the nutritional value of bananas, the biological activities of banana peel are relatively unknown. In this study, we investigated the anti-adipogenic activities of water and ethanol extracts of banana peel (BPE-W and BPE-E, respectively) and banana peel matured for 2 days at room temperature (MBPE-W and MBPE-E, respectively) on 3T3-L1 adipocytes. To evaluate the effects of the extracts on 3T3-L1 adipogenesis, the cells were treated with 10 and 100 μg/mL of the extracts from day 2 to day 6. Treatment with 100 μg/mL of extracts significantly inhibited lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. The BPE-W and BPE-E showed strong anti-adipogenic activities compared to MBPE-W and MBPE-E. Furthermore, 3T3-L1 adipocytes treated with the extracts down-regulated the transcription factor CCAAT/enhancer binding protein beta (c/EBPβ) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-γ) expressions. Taken together, our results indicate that the hydrolysis of components such as tannins in banana peel during maturation could affect the anti-adipogenic activities of banana peel extracts. The results of the study suggest a potential role for banana peel extracts as ingredients in the development of functional foods for obesity.Key words : adipogenesis, banana peel, maturation, obesity, 3T3-L1

  • This study analyzed the dietary conditions of Korean adolescents using the 2018 data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES), Korea Youth Risk Behavior Survey (KYRBS), and Consumer Behavior Survey for Food (CBSF). Totally, 397 (KNHANES), 60,040 (KYRBS), and 614 (CBSF) subjects were analyzed for this study. Subjects with normal weights were 69.0%, 73.0%, and 90.8%, respectively, and the rate of skipping breakfast was determined to be 31.8%, 33.6%, and 7.4%, respectively. The main reason for skipping meals was ‘not having enough time (78.3%)’, 45.2% of the subjects ate out more than ‘once/week’, 37.8% used the convenience store, and 51.9% ate out to eat delicious food. According to the KNHANES, the average food intake was 1,353.05 g/day, which differed in the amount of cereals, vegetables, seaweeds, oils and fat, and spices intake by gender. The nutrient intakes of energy, vitamin A, niacin, vitamin C, calcium, iron, dietary fiber and potassium were lesser than the recommended levels. Non-physical activity for more than 60 minutes a day per week was observed in 36.3∼82.0% of the subjects. Drinking experience among adolescents was 33.5∼42.3%, and the most popular frequency and amount of drinking were determined to be ‘once/month’ and ‘1∼2 glasses’, with almost no binge drinking reported. The experience of smoking was 14.9% for cigarettes, 7.9% for e-cigarettes, and 2.9% for heated tobacco, with 21.8% daily smokers, smoking an average of ‘2∼5 cigarettes/day (30.9%)’. Subjects receiving nutrition education were 21.2∼47.2%, with 95.8% having an awareness rate of nutrition labeling, but being implemented by a mere 33.2%.Key words : adolescent, dietary life, Korea

  • Article l 2021-01-31

    Effects of the Size and Fractions Based on Molecular Weight on Sensory Characteristics of Jeju Winter Radish

    Juhee Kim , Woonseo Baik, Gyeonghye Yoon, Sanghyeok Lee, Ji-Yoon Jung, Wei Xu, Chang-Sook Kim, Eui-Cheol Shin, Youngseung Lee, and Sung-Soo Park

    This study was performed to investigate the effect of size and fractions based on the molecular weight on the sensory and textural properties of winter radishes grown in Jeju. Samples were sorted into large, medium, and small sizes according to their weight and treated either in a raw or blanched state. The samples were separated into three fractions according to their molecular weight. The blanched radish showed increased moisture and reduced astringent taste, hardness and chewiness compared to the raw radish, while no significant differences were observed among samples according to size. The small size of raw radish was more astringent compared to the large and medium sized radishes. There were significant differences in mechanical hardness among the products with medium-sized raw and blanched radishes being the softest and having highest uniformity. This indicates that the different sizes of radish should be taken into consideration when developing a product using radishes. The intensity of the pungent taste and aroma decreased with the increase in the molecular weight of the radish extracts. The extract with the lowest molecular weight also showed the highest bitterness. This suggests that the molecular weight of separated radish ingredients accounts for the inherent flavor of winter radish.Key words : size, winter radish, sensory analysis, molecular weight, texture

  • Article l 2021-01-31

    Various Biological Activities of Extracts from Deodeok (Codonopsis lanceolata Trautv.) Buds

    Ji Yeong Kim , Byung Soon Hwang, Su Hyun Kwon, Mi Jang, Gi Chang Kim, Hae Ju Kang, and In Guk Hwang

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the physiological activities for subsequent utilization of Deodeok (Codonopsis lanceolata Trautv.) buds as a new functional food. Deodeok buds (CLS-A∼D) were classified according to the growth length. The total polyphenol and flavonoid contents of the 70% ethanol extracts ranged from 580.82 to 719.56 mg GAE/100 g, and 287.45 to 398.52 mg CE/100 g, respectively. The contents tended to decrease with increasing growth length of Deodeok buds. The DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activity of CLS-B were determined to be 622.87 and 436.98 mg AA eq/100 g, respectively, showing the highest antioxidant activity. Similar to other contents, increasing growth length resulted in decreased antioxidant activity. Moreover, tyrosinase, α-glucosidase, and elastase enzyme inhibitory activities of Deodeok buds also showed best inhibitory effect in CLS-B. Considering the result of this study, we confirm the possibility of wide application of Deodeok buds as a new functional food material.Key words : Deodeok, Codonopsis lanceolata Trautv, buds, antioxidant, functional food

  • Article l 2021-01-31

    The Relationship between Nutrition Status and Risk of Frailty in Cognitive Impaired Elderly in Daycare Center (DC Center)

    Woori Na , Jiyu Kim , Hyeji Kim , Yeji Lee , Cheongmin Sohn , and Dai-Ja Jang

    The cognitive disorder in elderly can cause various malfunctions, so it requires steady caring. Daycare centers for elderly are proper as a facility to take care of the elderly with cognitive disorders that are able to lead a normal life and that need relatively low level of caring. This study analyzed the relation with the frail of the elderly who have cognitive disorders among those who use adult daycare centers in order to provide basic resources of nutrition management to manage and improve their frail. The participants of the study were 88 persons whose Korean version of Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE-K) is less than 19 among the elderly at three adult daycare centers in Jeollabuk-do. The questionnaire items were gender, age, number of chronic diseases, BMI, hand grip, nutritional status (mini nutritional assessment, MNA) and health status (activity of daily living (K-ADL), pressure ulcer (Braden scale), fall (Huhn scale), appetite assessment (simplified nutritional appetite questionnaire, SNAQ), and K-FRAIL is used for frail assessment. For statistical analysis, the logistic regression was used for the analysis of relation between frail and nutritional condition. The result of analyzing the odds ratio of pre-frail by revising gender, age and the number of chronic diseases according to MNA scores for analysis of frail by nutritional condition was 0.788 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.643∼0.965, P=0.021), and the odds ratio of frail was 0.654 (95% CI: 0.477∼0.879, P=0.008). This indicates that it is necessary to establish an active nutrition management plan to improve health condition of the elderly with cognitive disorders in elderly care facilities.Key words : frail, elderly, nutrition assesment, adult day care centers

  • Article l 2021-01-31

    Physicochemical Qualities and Physiological Activities of Black Soybeans by Cultivation Area and Cultivars

    Jin Young Lee , Koan Sik Woo, Jeong Hyun Seo, Yu-Young Lee, Byong Won Lee, Mi-Hyang Kim, Moon Seok Kang, and Hyun-Joo Kim

    This study determined the effects of the area under cultivation and cultivars, on the quality and physiological activities of black soybeans. The crude contents of ash, fat and protein were determined to be 5.96∼6.62%, 12.22∼18.52%, and 40.06∼43.08%, respectively. Lightness of both cultivars were high in samples cultivated in Milyang. Although significant differences were obtained in redness and yellowness between cultivars, no differences were observed with respect to the cultivation area. The total dietary fiber content ranged from 20.56 to 36.49%, with Socheongja in Milyang and Cheongja in Suwon having the highest dietary fiber content. The phytic acid content ranged from 1.76 to 2.1%, with highest content obtained in the Socheongja cultivar of the Suwon cultivation sample. FRAP values were also found to be higher in the Socheongja samples of the Suwon cultivation (32.33 μM) as compared to Socheongja obtained from Milyang cultivation (5.67 μM). The α-glucosidase inhibitory activity was determined to be twice as high in Socheongja as compared to Cheongja, with no difference observed by region of cultivation. Thus, our study indicates that depending on the cultivation area, functional components and physiological activities for the same cultivar are different.Key words : black soybean, cultivated area, cultivars, quality, activity

  • Article l 2020-12-31

    Analysis of Research Trends in the Field of Food Science and Nutrition Published in North Korean Journals

    Jae-Hee Park, Duck Soon An, Gyo-Nam Kim, Sun-Uk Choi, and Eunju Park

    In this study, articles of North Korean journals published in 2014∼2017 were examined for their research trends and levels, focusing on food science/nutrition. Researchers in each field reviewed 426 papers and finally selected 349 papers, excluding 77 papers classified in different fields. These papers were reviewed in the original text to evaluate the structural and technical characteristics, research trends, and quality. The structure of North Korean journals has a format similar to that of domestic and foreign journals. On the other hand, the papers were very short, and an average of two to four references were cited, with some papers even omitting references. The number of publications in food science/nutrition by year was 87 in 2014, 74 in 2015, 152 in 2016, and 36 in 2017. The number of papers published in each field was classified as 200 for food science, 26 for cookery science, 4 for food safety management, 102 for food nutrition science, 1 for public health, and 21 for nutrition management. The research level in North Korea in these fields was evaluated to be very low. The majority of articles emphasized practicality rather than theory. This study is considered to be meaningful in reviewing the research status and technology level in North Korea through North Korean academic journals for the first time in the field of food science and nutrition.Key words : North Korean journal, food science, nutrition, research trend

  • This study examined the variations in blood HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) levels based on the data from the Seventh (2016) KNHANES. Further, the data was analyzed to correlate blood HDL-C levels with general characteristics, obesity and health behavior. Females showed higher HDL-C levels than males, and the levels decreased with age in males (P<0.001). HDL-C levels showed significant variations based on the household income in males (P<0.01). Males with obesity, as defined by both body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference, had lower HDL-C levels than normal but females with obesity defined only by BMI had lower levels (P<0.001). The HDL-C level showed significant variations based on the smoking and drinking frequency among the studied health behaviors (P<0.001). The distribution of low, moderate, and high groups classified by blood HDL-C levels showed significant variations by sex, age, obesity, smoking and drinking. Also, the distribution of the groups showed significant variations based on education levels, waist circumference and frequency of eating breakfast and eating outside in females. Similar variations were observed based on high-intensity physical activity in both males and females, and medium intensity physical activity in males (p<0.05). HDL-C levels correlated negatively with obesity and smoking and positively with physical activity. Drinking frequency, however, was associated positively with HDL-C levels and this implies that further studies on the relation of blood HDL-C with drinking are needed. In conclusion, HDL-C is closely related to general characteristics, obesity, and health behavior. Therefore the importance of using HDL-C as the standard parameter for dyslipidemia treatment should be emphasized.Key words : HDL-cholesterol, obesity, health behavior, physical activity, dyslipidemia

  • Article l 2020-09-30

    Quality Characteristics of American Waffle with Whole Wheat Flour

    Mun-Yong Kim
    2020; 49(9): 991-999

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the quality characteristics and sensory evaluation of American waffles substituted with 0, 25, 50, 75, and 100% whole wheat flour (WWF), which is rich in nutrients such as dietary fiber and minerals. The WWF samples maintained a constant specific gravity in the batter until 25% WWF substitution. However, specific gravity decreased with increasing WWF ratio, and spreadability and pH decreased as the ratio of WWF increased. The WWF samples showed higher baking loss rates until 50% substitution, whereas moisture content and water activity decreased. Lightness and yellowness significantly decreased with increasing WWF ratio. Hardness, chewiness, and gumminess of 25% WWF substitution sample were the highest, whereas springiness, cohesiveness, and resilience reached their highest values upon 75% WWF substitution. Overall acceptability was not significantly different among the samples. The WWF samples showed increasing acceptability for color, flavor, sweetness, and texture up to 50% WWF substitution. The characteristics intensity rating of crust color tended to increase with increasing WWF ratio. Bran flavor was not significantly different among the samples. The WWF samples showed significantly higher values for sweetness and crispiness than the control group, whereas fluffiness and chewiness showed the opposite pattern. Moreover, frequencies of bran flavor, sweet, nutty, unpleasant, and aftertaste increased with increasing WWF ratio, whereas egg, milk and creamy flavor, and flour taste decreased. These results suggest that substitution with 25∼50% WWF could be optimal to improve the quality characteristics of American waffles.Key words : whole wheat flour, American waffles, batter, quality characteristics, sensory evaluation

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February, 2021
Vol.50 No.2

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