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JKFN Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition

Online ISSN 2288-5978 Print ISSN 1226-3311

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  • Article l 2021-02-28

    Photo-Protective Effect of AP Collagen Peptides on UV-Induced Skin Aging

    Ji-Hae Lee , Minjung Chae, Jin Kyu Choi, Wangi Kim, and Miyoung Park

    Extrinsic factors including chronic ultraviolet (UV) radiation, smoking, and other pollutants may cause skin damage and aging. Oral supplementation of collagen, a major component in the skin dermis can have a photo-protective effect and help improve skin conditions. This study examined the effects of AP collagen peptides (APCP) containing glycine-proline-hydroxyproline (GPH) on UVB radiation in both human skin fibroblast and SKH-1 hairless mice. In UVB-irradiated fibroblast, APCP and GPH improved collagen type I and transforming growth factor-β1 gene expression in a dose-dependent manner. To evaluate the effects of APCP on skin photo-aging in vivo, hairless mice were exposed to UVB irradiation and administered APCP orally for 12 weeks. In the APCP-treated group, the mouse skin showed improved wrinkle indices (total wrinkle area, number of wrinkles, total length of wrinkles and mean foam factor) and histopathological changes (collagen and elastic fiber, and epidermal and dermal thickness) with a better skin barrier status (transepidermal water loss, subcutaneous hydration) and elasticity (gross elasticity, net elasticity, a portion of the visco-elasticity, and a portion of the elasticity) compared to the mouse skin of the control group. These results suggest that APCP is a potent candidate for an anti-photoaging ingredient.Key words : collagen peptide, wrinkle, anti-photoaging, skin barrier, elasticity

  • Article l 2021-02-28

    Inhibitory Effects of Zingiber officinale Roscoe Roots, Stems, and Leaves on Oxidative Stress through Free Radical Scavenging Activity

    Pu Reum Im , Hye-Jeong Hwang, Jeong Yeon Im, Yu-Jin Hwang, Dong-Geon Nam, Jeong-Sook Choe, and Kyung-A Hwang

    In this study, the antioxidant effects of Zingiber officinale Roscoe leaves and stems which have been registered as new food ingredients were comparatively analyzed with Z. officinale Rosc. roots. The increase in antioxidant activity was concentration-dependent in all extracts, and excellent antioxidant activity was confirmed in the roots (58%) and leaves (35%) at 100 μg/mL. The inhibitory effect of nitric oxide production was found in all samples. In particular, the leaves showed an inhibitory rate of 25∼31%, an effect similar to that of the roots (22∼37%), confirming their excellent efficacy. The stems showed a 24∼26% inhibition rate, but the inhibition was not concentration- dependent. The inhibitory effect of the roots, stems and leaves of Z. officinale Rosc. on the reactive oxygen species production was highest in the roots (21∼46%), followed by leaves (15∼30%) and stems (2∼11%). Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD) and Mn-SOD mRNA expressions were increased to high levels by the leaves. Glutathione peroxidase and catalase levels were in the increased in the roots, leaves, and stems, in that order. Through the results of this study, the antioxidant effects of Z. officinale Rosc. leaves and stems were confirmed, and excellent antioxidant activity was confirmed in the leaves. Z. officinale Rosc. leaves can therefore be considered for use as an antioxidant functional health food material in the future. However, since studies on the leaves are insufficient, additional studies in animals are needed to investigate the mechanism of the physiological activity of Z. officinale Rosc. leaves in the body.Key words : Zingiber officinale Roscoe, root, leaf, stem, reactive oxidative stress

  • Article l 2021-02-28

    Effect of Extraction Methods on the Quality of Pomegranate Juice and Physiological Activity

    Hee Sook Kim , Ka-Yoon Oh, Song Min Lee, Ji-Youn Kim, Sang-Hyeon Lee, Jeong Su Jang , and Mun Hyon Lee

    This study aimed to compare the quality characteristics of pomegranate juice based on the extraction methods applied: centrifugal, single-gear, and twin-gear. Changes in the metabolic activities during digestion condition were further investigated. The twin-gear method was eventually identified as the optimal method, through comprehensive evaluation of the extraction rate, particle size, proximate composition, and the mineral and vitamin contents. Pomegranate juice derived using the twin-gear method had high-levels of bioactive substances such as phenolic compounds, flavonoids, anthocyanins, and selenium. Consequently, this juice exerted significant inhibitory effects on lipid peroxidation. Phenolic compounds are known to exhibit a high-correlation with skin-lightening, anti-aging, and anti-diabetic activities. An in vitro digestion model was used to evaluate changes in the antioxidant and angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activities. Compared to levels observed before digestion, the results revealed a marked increase in the 2,2′- azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) radical scavenging, ferric reducing antioxidant power, and superoxide dismutase-like activities as digestion progressed through the gastric phase condition, whereas most of these effects were stabilized or inhibited as digestion progressed through the intestinal phase. The ACE inhibitory activity was observed to increase after being subjected to gastric and intestinal digestion conditions. The correlation coefficients (r2) for ACE inhibition and antioxidant activities were in the range 0.681∼0.952, thus indicating a highly positive correlation. The findings of this study indicate that the bioactivity of pomegranate juice is enhanced, as determined by the increase in various physiological activities as well as increase in the bioaccessibility and bioavailability of bioactive substances during digestion.Key words : Punica granatum L., extraction method, physiological activity, antioxidant, in vitro digestion

  • Article l 2021-02-28

    Influence of Roasting Temperature on the Functional Components of Perilla and Sesame Oils

    Jae Eun Park , Jung In Kim , Myoung Hee Lee, Sungup Kim, Eunyoung Oh, Kwang Soo Cho, and Ki Won Oh

    This study examined the functional components of perilla (Dayu) and sesame (Geonbaek) oils at various roasting temperatures. Roasting was conducted at 170°C, 180°C, and 190°C for 15 min. The oil yield of unroasted perilla and sesame oils was higher than roasted oils. With increasing roasting temperature, the brightness and yellowness in perilla oils decreased while the redness increased. With increased roasting temperature, the brightness was decreased while the yellowness increased in sesame oils. The major fatty acid of perilla oil was linolenic acid (62.6 to 64.0%). But the major fatty acids of sesame oil were oleic acid (42.8 to 43.8%), linoleic acid (41.2 to 42.4%). The total policosanol contents of the perilla oils were 16.67 to 17.61 mg/100 g oil. The lignan contents of sesame oils were 901 to 919 mg/100 g oil. Benzopyrene was not detected in the pressed oils. Roasting did not affect the functional components of perilla and sesame oils. This study provides basic data for the processing of edible oils and the seed industry.Key words : perilla, sesame, roasting temperature, policosanol, lignan

  • This study was undertaken to optimize the blanching process for producing onion flakes generally added in solid type HMR soup. Briefly, peeled and chopped onions were water-blanched at various temperatures and times (50, 60, 70°C/ 1, 2, 3 min), followed by hot air-blast drying (60°C, 9 h). Results revealed that the 50°C blanched treatment had a higher L-value and lower a-value than the 70°C blanched treatment. Moreover, the pH value, Brix, and total phenolic contents of onion flakes showed a dose-dependent decrease with increasing blanching temperature and time. Blanching at low temperature for a shorter time was effective in preventing the browning of onion flakes. In blanching at 70°C, the rehydration ratio was increased according to the increase of blanching time. Taken together, the results of this study reveal that water blanching at 70°C for 1 min is the optimal pre-treatment condition for commercial processing of onion flakes, wherein the nutritional properties are optimally retained.Key words : home meal replacement, onion flakes, pre-treatment, blanching, hot air-blast drying

  • Potato browning has been known to be caused by polyphenol oxidase. Another reason for browning is the Maillard reaction during the heating process. The polyphenol oxidase activity can be reduced through blanching or by using browning inhibitors such as ascorbic acid, CaCl2, NaCl, citric acid, and oxalic acid. This study examined the effects of browning inhibitors (NaCl and CaCl2) and blanching treatment on the qualities of Jeju Tamna potatoes. Various concentrations (0.05%, 0.1%, and 0.15%) of NaCl or CaCl2 were added in the blanching and soaking process, and then the potatoes were dried by hot air (58°C, 16 hours). The brown index after NaCl and CaCl2 treatments were seen to be lower than without treatment. The brown index of potatoes decreased with increasing concentration of NaCl. However, the brown index did not show a significant variation with changes in the CaCl2 concentration. The L* and a* value of potato color tended to increase depending on the increase in the concentration of the browning inhibitor, while the pH and water activity tended to decrease. The hardness showed no significant variation between the NaCl and CaCl2 treatments. Vitamin C levels decreased as the concentrations of NaCl and CaCl2 increased. The NaCl and CaCl2 treatments for potatoes were useful for improving color, inhibiting browning, and decreasing pH and water activity, but there was a nutritional problem as vitamin C levels decreased as browning inhibitor concentration increased.Key words : blanching, hot-air drying, potato, browning inhibitor, HMR

  • Article l 2021-02-28

    Optimization of Ethanol Production from Watermelon by Enzyme Treatment

    Beesung Kim , Jihoo Kim, and Heeseob Lee

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the efficiency of ethanol produced by the response surface methodology using enzyme-treated low-grade watermelons (Citrullus vulgaris Schrad.). Before ethanol production, entire watermelons were treated with different sets of enzymes. The extraction yield with the Celluclast® 1.5L and Viscozyme® L (1:1) combination was significantly higher than other treatments. Compared to other conditions, the total sugar and reducing sugar contents were significantly higher with two conditions, viz., Celluclast® 1.5L and Viscozyme® L (1:1), and Celluclast® 1.5L, Pextinex® Ultra Pulp and Viscozyme L (1:1:1). To optimize the ethanol production from enzyme treated Citrullus vulgaris Schrad., a central composite design (CCD) was introduced, based on the following four variables: amount of Saccharomyces cerevisiae AFY (X1: 0∼6%), amount of Kluyveromyces marxianus KCCM 12015 (X2: 0∼6%), amount of Candida kefyr KCCM 50614 (X3: 0∼6%), and fermentation time (X4: 0∼10 days). The experimental data were fitted with quadratic regression equations, and the accuracy of the equations was analyzed by ANOVA. The statistical model predicted highest ethanol production of 6.18% under the optimal conditions X1= 3.61%, X2=1.5%, X3=1.5%, and X4=7.5 days. The optimized conditions were validated by observation of an actual ethanol production, which yielded 5.9% ethanol. These results agree well with the predicted model value.Key words : watermelon, ethanol production, optimization, enzyme treatment, response surface methodology

  • Article l 2021-02-28

    Physical and Sensory Characteristics of Sponge Cake Added with Pueraria lovata Extract

    Inyong Kim , Won-Joo Ahn , and Yoonhwa Jeong

    This study analyzed the physical and sensory properties of sponge cakes prepared using arrowroot (Pueraria lovata) extract. Arrow extract was added to the dough in the proportion 3, 6, and 9% by weight of the flour. Physical change in the dough, the pH and specific gravity were measured, as well as the weight, specific gravity, pH, and loss rate of the sponge cake. Color and texture of sponge cakes with arrowroot extract were similarly measured. The preference test in sensory evaluation was conducted among college students. Evaluating the physical properties of the arrowroot extract itself revealed that the dough supplemented with arrowroot extract had increased specific gravity and decreased pH. The weight, specific gravity, and loss rate of the sponge cake were determined to increase with the amount of extract added, but with no significant change in the pH. Evaluation of chromaticity revealed decreasing L value and increasing a and b values, resulting in an overall dark brown color. Our results confirmed that there was no significant difference in the physical properties measured. Sensory evaluation revealed that preference was increased for overall preference and color, but was decreased in indicators related to physical properties.Key words : Pueraria lovata, sponge cake, physical characteristic, sensory characteristic

  • Article l 2021-02-28

    Development of Puffed Grain Products Containing Synbiotic Materials Using Electrostatic Spray

    Min Su Jeong , Jeong Hyeon Oh, Chung Ha Lim, Jun Bae Ahn, Chun mi Lee, Jun Young Jeong, and Kwang Yup Kim

    This study aimed to develop synbiotic materials and apply them to puffed grain products using electrostatic spraying technology. Lactic acid bacteria were isolated from kimchi and selected through tests of acid resistance, bile-salt resistance, and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) content. The isolated Lactobacillus brevis CFM21 produced the highest GABA production up to a concentration of 926.42 μg/mL when grown in MRS broth containing 0.8% MSG. The possibility of coated grains as a prebiotic material was evaluated using confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). Rice bran extract containing 2% dextrose, 2% soytone, 0.2% potassium chloride, and 0.6% MSG produced 524.77 μg/mL of GABA. Citrus sinensis oil showed the highest antibacterial activity against Clostridium perfringens. Electrostatic spray showed much higher effectiveness than conventional spray in coating the puffed grain product through CLSM. Applying a rice bran culture and Citrus sinensis oil to puffed grain product using an electrostatic spray can help promote the intestinal health of consumers.Key words : synbiotics, GABA, essential oil, electrostatic spray, confocal laser scanning microscopy

  • The purpose of this study was to evaluate the status of food safety management in children’s foodservice facilities through sanitary check scores and ATP bioluminescence assays. The subjects were 88 children’s foodservice facilities each with between 21 and 99 children. When periodic visiting education in 2020, a sanitary check score was taken, and an ATP bioluminescence assay was conducted on knives, cutting boards, and the hands of cook workers. The total mean score for the sanitary checks was 79.0 points. The total averages of the ATP values were 23.5±94.3 RLU/cm2 for knives, 26.0±129.3 RLU/cm2 for cutting boards, 72.5±92.7 RLU/cm2 before washing, and 11.6±19.3 RLU/cm2 after washing for cook workers’ hands. The passing ratio of the ATP value (below 2 RLU/cm2 for knife and cutting board, below 15 RLU/cm2 for cook workers’ hand) was 44.3% for knives, 53.4% for cutting boards, and 22.7% for cook workers’ hands. According to the last year’s level of food safety management, the foodservice facilities were divided into upper and lower grades. The sanitary check scores were significantly (PKey words : children’s foodservice facilities, food safety management, sanitary check score, ATP bioluminescence

  • Note l 2021-02-28

    Validation of Analytical Method of Quisqualic Acid for Standardization of Quisqualis indica Extract Powder (HU033)

    Myeong-Il Kim , Ji-Soo Yoon, Myeong-Hwan Oh, Rak-Ho Son, and Sung-Hum Yeon

    In the current study, high performance liquid chromatography was used to validate and establish a method for identification of quisqualic acid (QA) in Quisqualis indica extract powder (HU033), which is widely used in health functional foods. Sample preparation was achieved by applying o-phthalaldehyde derivatization and protein hydrolysis. Analysis was performed on a C18 column with a gradient elution containing a mixture of sodium acetate (0.01 M, pH 4.6) and acetic acid (0.2 M) in water, and a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min methanol, detected at 338 nm. Method validation was achieved by measuring the specificity, linearity, accuracy and precision. Calibration curve of QA showed high linearity (R2=1), and limits of detection and quantification were determined to be 1.0 and 3.0 μg/mL, respectively. Recovery rate ranged from 98.66% to 101.11%, and QA content in HU033 was approximately 1.09%. Based on these results, we conclude that the developed method can be applied for quantifying QA in Quisqualis indica extract powder (HU033).Key words : HPLC method, HU033, quisqualic acid, Quisqualis indica, validation

Journal Info

February, 2021
Vol.50 No.2

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Print ISSN 1226-3311 Online ISSN 2288-5978